Ambon (17th century print), Indonesia. No Copyright
Ambon (17th century print), Indonesia

South East Asia and in Far East Asia. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster.

BURMA:

Martabão (Martaban): (16°32’N – 97°36’E)

Portuguese: 1514 feitoria – 1516

Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700”

Tenasserim: (12°06’N – 98°56’E)

Portuguese: wooden fort on a hill near the port of Tenasserim 1520s. wooden fort *

According to L.F.Thomaz “L’ambassade de 1521” in: Bouchon e Thomaz “Voyage dans le Delta du Gange et de l’Irrawady: relation portugaise anonyme 1521” and Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700”

*It’s probable that this fort wasn’t built by the Portuguese. João de Barros em: “Da Ásia” Dec. III, Livro VIII, Capítulo II, p. 256/257

Siriao (Syriam): (16°46’N – 96°14’E) Fortaleza de Santiago do Siriao

Portuguese: 1599 tranqueira (wooden fort), 1601/2 fort and custom house – Mar. 1613

Pegu Kingdom:

The Portuguese controlled the Kingdom of Pegu between 1600 and 1613.

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580” Guedes “Interferência e integração dos Portugueses na Birmania 1580-1630” 

THAILAND:

Patane (Pattani): (06°52’N – 101°15’E)

Portuguese: 1524 conquered, a few day after abandoned

Portuguese: 1530s. Portuguese settlement

Conceiçao Flores “Os Portugueses e o Sião no século XVI”

CAMBODIA:

Ilha de Choro (island in the Mekong river):

Portuguese: fort ? Portuguese/Spanish expedition 1596-1599. In Jan. 1598 the King of Cambodia give to the Portuguese Captain Diogo Veloso, the “Ilha de Choro do Mar do Rio de Prequelapo até a ponta de Troi Polon” to build a fortress in the name of the King of Portugal.

Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700” Conceiçao Flores “Os Portugueses e Sião no século XVI”

VIETNAM:

Faifo (Hoi An): (15°53’N – 108°20’E)

Portuguese: 1535 feitoria, 1596 mission – ?

MALAYSIA:

Malacca or Malaca: (02°12’N – 102°15’E) Fortaleza a Famosa (1511) (Courassa or São Pedro, São Domingos, São Tiago, Madre de Deus, As Virgens bastions)

Portuguese: 15/24 August 1511 – 14 January 1641

to The Netherlands

Ilha das Naus or Naos (near Malacca): (02°11’N – 102°15’E)

Portuguese: A battery was built between 1606/1615, the fort was never completed by the Portuguese; the Dutch assault of 1640 began before the fort was finished and at the end the Portuguese had to abandon their partly accomplished fort.

Irwin G.W. “Melaka Fort”

Muar: (02°03’N – 102°34’E) Fortaleza de Muar (1604)

Portuguese: 1604 fort – ?

INDONESIA:

Pacem or Passumah (Puuek, Sumatra Island): (05°09’N – 97°14’E)

Portuguese: 1520/21 fort – May 1524* (*1523 Conceição Flores “Os Portugueses o o Sião no século XVI”)

Gaspar Correia “Lendas da Índia” Tomo II ,Parte II ,pp.795

Banten:

Portuguese: 15 ? settlement – ?

Makassar (Sulawesi Island): (05°08’S – 119°24’E)

Portuguese: ? settlement and feitoria – 1665

Tidore (Tidore Island): (00°41’N – 127°22’E) Fortaleza dos Reis Magos (1578)

Portuguese: 6 Jan. 1578 fort – May 1605

to The Netherlands (May 1605 – 1606)

to Spain (April 1606 – 1663)* (*The Spaniards had several forts on the island of Tidore: Tohula, Rume, Sokanora, Marieko, Tomanira, Cobo, the old Portuguese fort. Source: Marco Ramerini “Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663” unpublished research)

to The Netherlands

Marco Ramerini “Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663”

Ternate (Ternate Island): (00°45’N – 127°20’E) Fortaleza de São João Baptista or Castelo Gammalamma (1522)

Portuguese: 1513 feitoria, 24 Jun. 1522 fortress – 15 July 1575

to the Ternateans (1575 – Apr. 1606)

to Spain ** (Apr. 1606 – 2 May 1663 abandoned) (**In Ternate the Spaniards occupied the Gammalamma Castle and Fort Don Pedro (Ciudad Nuestra Señora del Rosario), San Francisco Calomata and Fort San Pedro y Pablo Source: Marco Ramerini “Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663” unpublished research)

to The Netherlands *** (Jun. 1607 – ?) (***In Ternate the Dutch built the Fort Malayo or Fort Orange)

Marco Ramerini “Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663”

Batjan (Bacan island): 

Portuguese: 1513 feitoria – ?

Hanna Des Alwi “Turbulent times past in Ternate and Tidore” 

Amboina or Amboino (Kota Ambon, Ambon Island): (03°42’S – 128°10’E) Fortaleza da Nossa Senhora da Anunciada (1576)

Portuguese: 1569 wooden fort (north coast), 1572 wooden fort (south coast), 25 Mar. 1576 fortress – 23 Feb. 1605

to The Netherlands

Jacobs “The Portuguese town of Ambon 1576-1605″ in II Seminário de História Indo-Portuguesa”

Banda (Banda Islands): (04°32’S – 129°53’E)

Portuguese: fort ?

Solor (Lohajong or Lawayong, Solor Island): (08°27’S – 123°04’E) Fort with five stone bastions

Portuguese: 1561 settlement, 1566 fort – 18 Apr. 1613

to The Netherlands (18 Apr. 1613 – 1615 ?)

abandoned (1615 ? – 1618)

to The Netherlands (1618 – 1629/30)

abandoned (1629/30)

Portuguese: 1630-1636

abandoned (1636-1646)

to The Netherlands (1646 – ?) the fort is renamed Fort Henricus.

Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702” Villiers “The Dominican Mission and the sandalwood..”

Ende (Ende Menor Island): (08°53’S – 121°32’E)

Portuguese: 1595 fort – ?

Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702” Villiers “The Dominican Mission and the sandalwood..” 

Larantuka (Flores Island): (08°21’S – 122°59’E) fort

Portuguese: after the fall of Solor ? 1613 ? – 1851

ceded by treaty (1851/1854/1859) to The Netherlands

Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702” Villiers “The Dominican Mission and the sandalwood..” De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Sicca (Sikka or Sika, Flores Island): (08°44’S – 122°11’E)

Portuguese: ? – 1851

ceded by a treaty (1851-1854-1859) to the Netherlands

De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Paga (Flores Island): (08°46’S – 122°02’E)

Portuguese: ? – 1851

ceded by a treaty (1851/1854/1859) to the Netherlands

De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Wouré (Wurek, Adonara Island): 

Portuguese: ? – 1851

ceded by a treaty (1851/1854/1859) to the Netherlands

De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Pomang Kaju (Pamakajo, Solor Island): (08°26’S – 122°58’E) circa

Portuguese: ? – 1851

ceded by a treaty (1851/1854/1859) to the Netherlands

De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Cupão or Cupang (Kupang, Timor Island): (10°10’S – 123°35’E)

Portuguese: 1646 fort – 1653

to The Netherlands (1653 – ?) renamed Fort Concordia.

Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702”

TIMOR EST:

The Portuguese rule in Timor was reduced to Dili, Batugadé and Manatuto till the end of the 19th century. There was only a nominal submission to the Portuguese Crown by the small “Kingdoms” of the island.

Lifau: (09°13’S – 124°18’E)

Portuguese: 1660s. ? fort – 11 Aug. 1769 abandoned

Occupied by Timorese rebels for a short time in the year 1756? or 1757? or 1758?

Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702” De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Manatuto: (08°31’S – 126°01’E)

Portuguese: fort

De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Batugadé: (08°57’S – 124°58’E)

Portuguese: fort

to Timorese rebels (17 – 1731)

Portuguese: 1731 – ?

De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”

Dilly or Díli: (08°43’S – 125°35’E) fort

Portuguese: 1668 – Feb. 1942

(15 Dec. 1941- Feb. 1942 occupation by Australian and Dutch troops)

to Japan (Feb. 1942 – 1945)

Portuguese: ? – 27 August 1975 abandoned

Loureiro “Onde nasce o Sándalo”

Ataúro Island or Pulo Kambing: circa (08°18’S – 125°32’E)

Portuguese: ? – 1975

CHINA:

Timão or Tamão (Shang-ch’wan island): Shangchuan Dao ? (21°45’N – 112°47’E) ?

Portuguese: 1517/18 feitoria and fort – 1521

to China

Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Liampo (Ningpo or Ningbo): (29°52’N – 121°32’E)

Portuguese: 1518 feitoria and settlement – 1542

to China

Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Chincheo or Chinchew (Zhangzhou ?, Fukien): (24°31’N – 117°39’E) ?

Portuguese: 1547 settlement – 1549

to China

Danvers “Portuguese in India” Boxer “Francisco Vieira de Figueiredo”

Lampacau or Lampazau (Lao-yan-than ? island near Macao): (?)

Portuguese: 1549 settlement, it was a respectable Portuguese settlement in 1560s – ? abandoned (according to Boxer “The great ship from Amacon” p. 309 note 2)

Danvers “Portuguese in India”

Macao (Macau): (22°12’N – 113°33’E) Fortaleza de São Paulo do Monte (1617), Baluarte de Patane, Forte de Nossa Senhora do Bom Parto, Forte de Nossa Senhora da Penha de França, Fortaleza de São Francisco, Fortim de São Januário, Baluarte de São João, Fortaleza da Guia, Forte São Tiago da Barra (1616), Fortim de São Jerónimo, Fortim de São Pedro (1622).

Portuguese: 1555/57 – 19/20 Dec. 1999

to China

Boxer “The great ship from Amacon” Danvers “Portuguese in India”

JAPAN:

Vocoxiura or Yokoseura (Yokose): (33°05’N – 129°42’E)

Portuguese: 1562 feitoria ? – 1563

Boxer “The great ship from Amacon”

Deshima (Nagasaki): (32°44’N – 129°52’E)

Portuguese: 1571 feitoria – 1639

to The Netherlands

Boxer “The great ship from Amacon” pp. 35/6

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