Author Archives: Marco Ramerini

Who Constructed the Mission Churches? Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

Santa Ana de Velasco mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 2: How Many Jesuit Missions Were Founded? Who Constructed the Mission Churches? Another often-repeated error is that the first permanent (not provisional) churches of the mission complexes, or conjuntos misionales, of the Jesuit missions in the ...

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How Many Jesuit Missions Were Founded? Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

Concepcion mission (1699), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 1: Introduction: Traditional and Later Research Efforts, Recent Research and Its Consequences, Challenges to Current Research How Many Jesuit Missions Were Founded? Thanks to the carrying-forward of erroneous assumptions made by earlier writers who did not verify ...

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Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

San José de Chiquitos mission (1697), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck This article and its companion piece, “The Long Silence: The Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos after the Extrañamiento”, are two halves of a whole, written primarily to remedy the fact that no accurate historical overview of the twelve Jesuit ...

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The Forts of Fernando de Noronha

The view towards the Morro do Pico from the round tower of the Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Fernando de Noronha was discovered by the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci in 1503. In 1504 the Crown granted the archipelago as a “capitania hereditária” to a Portuguese lord, Fernão de Noronha, from whom it takes its name. The archipelago was occupied by two other European nations (Dutch and French) during the ...

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The main fort of Fernando de Noronha: Fortress of Nossa Senhora Dos Remédios

The entrance gate and the front walls of the fort, Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The fortress of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios is the most important fortification of the entire defensive system built on the island of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil) by the Portuguese in the eighteenth century and is located on a hill between the Bay of Santo António and the Praia do Cachorro. ...

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The forts of Salvador (Bahia)

Forte de Nossa Senhora de Monte Serrat, Salvador (Bahia). Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini.

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Right from the founding of the city the Portuguese started with the construction of a defensive system against foreign invasions, which occurred until the 18th century. The main works of fortification were executed after the Dutch conquest of the town (1624-1625) and the successive reconquest by the Portuguese. Fearing another ...

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Salvador (Bahia): the capital of Colonial Brazil

Convent and Igreja de São Francisco, Salvador de Bahía, Bahía, Brazil. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini.

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Florentine Amerigo Vespucci, on 1 January 1502, came to a gulf at 13° latitude south, to which he gave the name Bahia de Todos Santos, on the shores of which the city of Bahia now stands. Salvador was founded in 1549 by Tomé de Souza, the first governor-general of ...

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Recife Forts: Fort do Brum, Fort das Cinco Pontas

The entrance gate of Forte do Brum, Recife. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini.

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. FORTE DO BRUM One of the most important remains of the Dutch rule in northeast Brazil is the Forte do Brum (Fort de Bruyne), on the northern end of Recife island. The fort was originally started to built in 1629 by the Portuguese, when the Dutch took control of Pernambuco ...

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Recife: the capital of sugar cane of Colonial Brazil

Watercolour chart of the city of Recife (Brazil) in the 17th century (1665). Author Johannes Vingboons

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Recife is now the capital of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. Until the 17th century the city was a small village near the capital of the Capitania of Pernambuco, Olinda. In 1630 with the Dutch conquest of northeastern Brazil, Olinda was burned by the Dutch, just because it was considered ...

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Governors and Viceroys of Portuguese Brazil, 1549-1760

Map of Brazil in the Miller Atlas of 1519

Written by Marco Ramerini.  Brazil was discovered, almost by accident in 1500 by a Portuguese expedition live in the East under the command of Pedro Alvares Cabral. Cabral ‘s expedition followed the sea route to India traveled recently by Vasco da Gama, sailing around Africa. The expedition – to avoid the equatorial calms – followed a route far from the African coast ...

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