Asia

Ternate: The Spanish fort San Pedro

The plan of the Fuerza Nueva. Colin-Pastells “Labor Evangelica” vol. III p. 73

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. San Pedro, Sant Pedro, Fuerza Nueva: (1606/1610-1663) benteng Santo Pedro (Kastella) Among the defenses of the Spanish city of Ternate: Ciudad del Rosario. There was also a fort set on a hill in the surroundings of the city. This fort was called San Pedro. It seems that the Portuguese had ...

Read More »

The Spanish town of Ternate: Ciudad del Rosario or Gammalamma

Reconstruction of the probable position of the city of Nuestra Señora del Rosario and of the Fuerza Nueva fort. Author Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Ternate, Terrenate, Thernate, Gamolamo, Ciudad del Rosario (or Rrosario), Gamma Lamma1 : (Current name: Kastela, Benteng Kastela o Kastella) (Under Spanish control: 1 April 1606-1663) The Spanish city of Ternate was in the southern part of the island, in the place now called Kastela, where, since 1521, were established the ...

Read More »

The Portuguese fort of Ternate

Ternate (1883-1889), Moluccas, Indonesia. Author Tropenmuseum of the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT). Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Portuguese fort of Ternate was founded by António de Brito in 1522, the foundation stone of the fortress was laid the day of the feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24, 1522, the fort was named “São João Bautista de Ternate.” The outer wall of the fortress enclosing ...

Read More »

Makassar and the Portuguese

Bay of Makassar (1846), Sulawesi, Indonesia. Atlas pittoresque. Author Louis Le Breton. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Kingdom of Makassar at the time of Portuguese expansion in the Asian seas comprised the two Kingdoms of Gowa and Tallo. Portuguese merchants frequented Makassar intermittently during the 16th century, but it was only after the Islamization of the Makassar Kingdom (1600s), that their presence grew. During the 17th ...

Read More »

Portuguese Fort in Ende Island, Indonesia

Remains of Ende fort, Ende Island, Indonesia. Author and Copyright Mark Schellekens and Greg Wyncoll

Written by Marco Ramerini. In 1595, the Dominican friars led by Brother Simone Pacheco built a little Fort on the island of Ende Minor (Palau Ende) to protect local Christians from Islamic attacks. This small fort was named by the Portuguese as Fortaleza de Ende. Pero Carvalhais was its first captain. Within the walls of the fort was built the ...

Read More »

Tranquebar: a Danish fort in India

Historic map of danish colony Tranquebar and Fort Dansborg, 1700s. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. Tranquebar (Tharangambadi) is a small village in Tamil Nadu in India located on the Coromandel coast about 30 km north of Nagapattinam. Tranquebar has the distinction of have been a Danish colony between 1620 and 1845. The Danes in 1620 founded the Fort Dansborg and made ​​it their main trading settlement along the Indian coast. Tranquebar (Dansborg ...

Read More »

Population of the Portuguese Settlements in India

Bassein Fort, India. Author Himanshu Sarpotdar. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Diu: (20°43’N – 71°00’E) Damão Grande or Praça de Damão (Damão, Moti Daman or Daman): (20°25’N – 72°50’E) 1634: 400 “almas entre portugueses e nativos cristãos”. Source: Leão “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” 1662: 100 “casais portugueses”. Source: Leão “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” ...

Read More »

Goa: the capital of Portuguese India

Goa, India. Histoire générale des voyages, 1750. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Goa is situated on an island at the mouth of the Mandovi River. At the time of the arrival of the Portuguese in India, Goa was under the rule of the Sultan of Bijapur, for whom Goa was the second most important city. It was wealthy and possessed a grand ...

Read More »

The Dutch in Malabar (Kerala), India

The capture of Cochin and victory of the Dutch VOC over the Portuguese in 1656. Atlas van der Hagen. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. In 1650 the VOC possessed only the unfortified factories in Kayamkulam and Cannanore. But at the end of the hostilities with the Portuguese in 1663 the Dutch became the new rulers of the Malabar Coast. They possessed military outposts at 11 places: Alleppey, Ayacotta, Cheramangalam, Pappinivattam, Ponanni, Pallipuram, Cranganore, Chettuwaye, ...

Read More »

The Portuguese in Cochin (Kochi), India

Cochim. From Livro das Plantas de Todas as Fortalezas (1635). Author Bocarro. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The city of Cochin (today: Ernakulam) was from the 24 December 1500, when the first Portuguese fleet called on its port, a firm ally of the Portuguese. The admiral of this fleet was Pedro Alvares Cabral (the discoverer of Brasil). The Rajah (king) of Cochin allowed, a “feitoria” (factory) to ...

Read More »

Chaul a Portuguese town in India

Korlai Fort (Morro de Chaul), India. Author Darima. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Portuguese town of Chaul lies about 350 kilometers north of Goa and 60 kilometers south of Bombay (Mumbai) at the mouth of the Kundalika river near the village of Revdanda. Chaul was located on the low northern bank, opposed to a promontory on the south bank, which is called ...

Read More »

The Portuguese in Bassein (Baçaim, Vasai): the ruins of a Portuguese town in India

The entrance Gate to the citadel of the fortress. Vasai, Bassein, Baçaim. Author and Copyright Sushant Raut

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Bassein-Vasai (Baçaim) is situated at about 70 kilometers north of Bombay on the Arabian Sea. It lies on an island at the mouth of a river and was thanks to this position easily defensible. The city, which belonged to the Kingdom of Cambay, was a very important one before the ...

Read More »