Portuguese Colonialism

Kilwa: a Portuguese Fort in Tanzania

Portuguese Fort, Kilwa, Tanzania. Author and Copyright Alan Sutton

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Alan Sutton Situated along the coast of Tanzania, Kilwa fort was built by the Portuguese in 1505 and was the first stone fort built by the Portuguese along the coast of East Africa. The construction of the fort was the work of the sailors and soldiers of the squadron of D. Francisco de Almeida, ...

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The Fortress of Santo António da Ponta da Mina, Principe Island

Island of Principe (Sao Tome and Principe), 1727. Old view of the island of Príncipe, the bay of the port and the Fortaleza da Ponta da Mina (on the left)

Written by Marco Ramerini, photos and information by James Leese. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. According to a source dated 1815, this was the situation of the Portuguese forts on the island of Príncipe, in particular in the Bay of San António, where almost all the boats anchored: the two main defenses of the bay were the fortress of ...

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The revolt of the slaves on the African island of São Tomé 1595

Slaves. The Old Plantation, ca. 1790-1800. Watercolor by unidentified artist.

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The revolt of Amador, named after the slave who led it, is the most important attempt of rebellion that has ever happened on the island of São Tomé. The revolt of the slaves of the island began on July 9, 1595. The leader of this revolt was from the beginning ...

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The Dutch on São Tomé and Principe: the attacks on the island of Principe (1598) and São Tomé (1599)

Map of São Tomé by Johannes Vingboons (1665). No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Shortly after the Union of Spain and Portugal, Philip II imposed the ban on the Dutch to trade and use the Iberian ports, this act was the result of the Dutch rebellion against the Spanish king, and it suddenly kept the Dutch away from the supply of goods from the ...

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Arguin: A Portuguese Fortress in Mauritania 1445-1633

Plan of the fortress at the island of Arguin in 1721. Originaly plublished by Jean-Baptist Labat (1663-1728).

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Situated on the Arguin island (today Mauritania), this was the first fort the Portuguese built in Africa. The fort remained under Portuguese control between 1445 and 1633. The Arguin area was explored by the Portuguese around the years 1442-1444 by Gonçalo de Sintra (1442), Dinis Dias (1442), Nuno Tristão (1443) and Lançarote ...

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A Portuguese fort in Madagascar: the fort near Tolanaro

Map of the community at Tranovato (Ilha de Santa Cruz) (1656), Madagascar. Author Flacourt. Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The big island of Madagascar was discovered in 1500 by a Portuguese fleet under the command of Diogo Dias, which was part of a fleet of 13 ships commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese called the new discovered island Ilha de São Lourenço. The island was visited several times ...

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Data on the independence of Portuguese colonies

Mozambique island Fort, Mozambique

Written by Dietrich Köster.  Brazil – 07 September 1822 Cape Verde – 05 July 1975 Portuguese Guinea – unilateral proclamation: 24 September 1973, definitive independence: 10 September 1974 São João Baptista de Ajudá – occupation by the Republic of Dahomey (Benin): 01 August 1961 São Tomé and Príncipe – 12 July 1975 Angola – 11 November 1975 Mozambique – 25 ...

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African Countries with Portuguese as an Official Language

Fortress of São Miguel, Luanda, Angola. Author and Copyright Virgilio Pena da Costa.

Written by Dietrich Köster © June 2012 by Dietrich Köster, D-53113 Bonn  Cape Verde Official name: Republic of Cape Verde Capital city: Praia Language: The official language is Portuguese, besides Creole is spoken. Population: 530,000 Area: 4,036 sq km Currency: Cape Verde Escudo (CVE) Independence Day: 05 July 1975 Guinea-Bissau Official name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau Capital city: Bissau Language: The official ...

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Portuguese language heritage in Africa

Elmina Castle, 1668. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. After the conquest, in 1415, of the Arab stronghold of Ceuta in Morocco, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the African coast, and in the 1460s they built the first fort in Arguin (Mauritania). 1482 was the year of the construction of São Jorge da Mina Castle on ...

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Portuguese fortresses of Luanda

Fortress of São Miguel, Luanda, Angola. Author and Copyright Virgilio Pena da Costa

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Virgílio Pena da Costa. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The city of Luanda, the capital of Angola, was founded by the Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais on 25 January 1576. The city was named by the Portuguese as “São Paulo da Assumpção de Loanda”. The Portuguese, in the following years, built three ...

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