Portuguese Colonialism

The Portuguese on Solor and in the Lesser Sunda Islands

Portuguese Fort, Solor, Indonesia. Author Livro das Plantas das Fortalezas, Cidades e Povoaçoes do Estado da India Oriental 1600s. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. SOLOR AND THE LESSER SUNDA ISLANDS The early Portuguese contact with these islands was in the years about the 1520s. They frequented these islands mainly to purchase sandalwood. The early traders established only temporary warehouses. They did not build permanent trading posts, farms or fortresses, because this task was left ...

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The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore

Moluccas 1714.

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. TERNATE AND TIDORE The first Portuguese expedition to the Moluccas under the command of António de Abreu arrived in Amboina and on the Banda islands in 1512. After an adventurous voyage he went back to Malacca. Francisco Serrão and other members of this expedition wrecked on a reef off Lucopino ...

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Ambon: The Portuguese in the Moluccas, Indonesia

Ambon (17th century print), Indonesia. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Ambon is an island located in the south of the Spice Islands in what is today the Indonesian archipelago. In the year 1569 the Portuguese Gonçalo Pereira Marramaque erected a wooden fort on the northern coast of the Ambon island. In 1572 the fort was moved to the southern side ...

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The Portuguese fort of Ternate

Ternate (1883-1889), Moluccas, Indonesia. Author Tropenmuseum of the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT). Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Portuguese fort of Ternate was founded by António de Brito in 1522, the foundation stone of the fortress was laid the day of the feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24, 1522, the fort was named “São João Bautista de Ternate.” The outer wall of the fortress enclosing ...

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Makassar and the Portuguese

Bay of Makassar (1846), Sulawesi, Indonesia. Atlas pittoresque. Author Louis Le Breton. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Kingdom of Makassar at the time of Portuguese expansion in the Asian seas comprised the two Kingdoms of Gowa and Tallo. Portuguese merchants frequented Makassar intermittently during the 16th century, but it was only after the Islamization of the Makassar Kingdom (1600s), that their presence grew. During the 17th ...

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Portuguese Fort in Ende Island, Indonesia

Remains of Ende fort, Ende Island, Indonesia. Author and Copyright Mark Schellekens and Greg Wyncoll

Written by Marco Ramerini. In 1595, the Dominican friars led by Brother Simone Pacheco built a little Fort on the island of Ende Minor (Palau Ende) to protect local Christians from Islamic attacks. This small fort was named by the Portuguese as Fortaleza de Ende. Pero Carvalhais was its first captain. Within the walls of the fort was built the ...

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Population of the Portuguese Settlements in India

Bassein Fort, India. Author Himanshu Sarpotdar. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Diu: (20°43’N – 71°00’E) Damão Grande or Praça de Damão (Damão, Moti Daman or Daman): (20°25’N – 72°50’E) 1634: 400 “almas entre portugueses e nativos cristãos”. Source: Leão “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” 1662: 100 “casais portugueses”. Source: Leão “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” ...

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Goa: the capital of Portuguese India

Goa, India. Histoire générale des voyages, 1750. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Goa is situated on an island at the mouth of the Mandovi River. At the time of the arrival of the Portuguese in India, Goa was under the rule of the Sultan of Bijapur, for whom Goa was the second most important city. It was wealthy and possessed a grand ...

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The Portuguese in Cochin (Kochi), India

Cochim. From Livro das Plantas de Todas as Fortalezas (1635). Author Bocarro. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The city of Cochin (today: Ernakulam) was from the 24 December 1500, when the first Portuguese fleet called on its port, a firm ally of the Portuguese. The admiral of this fleet was Pedro Alvares Cabral (the discoverer of Brasil). The Rajah (king) of Cochin allowed, a “feitoria” (factory) to ...

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Chaul a Portuguese town in India

Korlai Fort (Morro de Chaul), India. Author Darima. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Portuguese town of Chaul lies about 350 kilometers north of Goa and 60 kilometers south of Bombay (Mumbai) at the mouth of the Kundalika river near the village of Revdanda. Chaul was located on the low northern bank, opposed to a promontory on the south bank, which is called ...

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The Portuguese in Bassein (Baçaim, Vasai): the ruins of a Portuguese town in India

The entrance Gate to the citadel of the fortress. Vasai, Bassein, Baçaim. Author and Copyright Sushant Raut

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Bassein-Vasai (Baçaim) is situated at about 70 kilometers north of Bombay on the Arabian Sea. It lies on an island at the mouth of a river and was thanks to this position easily defensible. The city, which belonged to the Kingdom of Cambay, was a very important one before the ...

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The Portuguese on the Bay of Bengal

St.Thomas Basilica (1893), Mylapore, Chennai, India. Author Simon Chumkat. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. On the Bay of Bengal there was a rather peculiar form of Portuguese settlements. Indeed this coast was not conquered militarily like the Malabar coast, but was colonized pacifically by groups of “Casados” (married men of the reserve army), beginning in the 1520s. SÃO TOMÉ DE MELIAPORE (Madras) The main ...

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