Gunpowder on Flores Island Indonesia, in 15th & 16th Century

Flores volcano. Photo Copyright Fransisco Soarez Pati

Written by: Francisco Soarez Patifransisco78@gmail.com One of the three reasons why the Portuguese survived in Flores and its surroundings for 347 years (1512-1859) even though the region did not have cloves, nutmeg and others like Molucas was because of the many volcanoes in Flores from the east end to the center. Volcanoes or what they call vulcão in Flores Island ...

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Moluccas 1 – The Spaniards in the Moluccas, 1521-1602

CAPITOLO PRIMO: I PRIMI CONTATTI DEGLI SPAGNOLI CON LE ISOLE MOLUCCHE

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 INTRODUCTION In the early 2000s I had started researching the Spanish presence in the Spice Islands. Some of my research was published during those years. The largest, however, remained unfinished in the files on my computer. Now after 15 ...

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Moluccas 2 – The conquest of Ternate, 1606

CAPITOLO SECONDO: LA CONQUISTA DI TERNATE

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER TWO: THE CONQUEST OF TERNATE THE PREPARATION OF THE EXPEDITION BY D. PEDRO DE ACUÑA The Spanish response, this time, was not long in coming. The governor of the Philippines, D. Pedro de Acuña, in a document1, undated, ...

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Moluccas 3 – The government of Juan de Esquivel in Ternate, 1606-1609

CAPITOLO TERZO: IL GOVERNO DI JUAN DE ESQUIVEL, Maggio 1606-Marzo 1609

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER THREE: THE GOVERNMENT OF JUAN DE ESQUIVEL, May 1606-March 1609 Governor Acuña, after conquering Ternate, left for Manila on May 3, 1606, where he arrived on June 2, 1606. Before leaving Ternate, he appointed the “mestre de campo” ...

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Moluccas 4 – The government of Lucas Vergara Gabiria in Ternate, 1609-1610

CAPITOLO QUARTO: IL GOVERNO DI LUCAS VERGARA GABIRIA (che fa le funzioni), Marzo 1609-Febbraio 1610

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER FOUR: THE GOVERNMENT OF LUCAS VERGARA GABIRIA (who performs the functions), March 1609-February 1610 THE APPOINTMENT OF LUCAS VERGARA GABIRIA AS GOVERNOR OF TERNATE At the beginning of 1609, on the death of Juan de Esquivel, Lucas Vergara ...

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Moluccas 5 – The government of Cristóbal de Azcueta Menchaca in Ternate, 1610-1612

CAPITOLO QUINTO: IL GOVERNO DI CRISTÓBAL DE AZCUETA MENCHACA (che fa le funzioni), Febbraio 1610-Marzo 1612

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 THE ARRIVAL OF CRISTÓBAL DE AZCUETA MENCHACA IN TERNATE The new governor of Ternate, the “mestre de campo” Cristóbal de Azcueta Menchaca, was appointed by the governor of the Philippines Don Juan de Silva.1 On February 4, 1610 we ...

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Moluccas 6 – The government of D. Jerónimo de Silva in Ternate, 1612-1617

CAPITOLO SESTO: IL GOVERNO DI D. JERÓNIMO DE SILVA, Marzo 1612-Aprile 1617

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER SIX: THE GOVERNMENT OF D. JERÓNIMO DE SILVA, March 1612-April 1617 THE ARRIVAL OF D. JERÓNIMO DE SILVA IN TERNATE In the first months of 1612 several ships arrived in Ternate to reinforce the Spanish garrisons in the ...

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Moluccas 7 – The government of Lucas Vergara Gabiria in Ternate, 1617-1620

CAPITOLO SETTIMO: IL GOVERNO DI LUCAS VERGARA GABIRIA, Aprile 1617-Febbraio 1620

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER SEVEN: THE GOVERNMENT OF LUCAS VERGARA GABIRIA, April 1617-February 1620 THE ARRIVAL OF LUCAS VERGARA GABIRIA IN TERNATE In April 1617 a galley was sent from Manila to warn Don Jeronimo of the new events1 and to inform ...

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Moluccas 8 – The government of D. Luis de Bracamonte in Ternate, 1620-1623

CAPITOLO OTTAVO: IL GOVERNO DI D. LUIS DE BRACAMONTE, Febbraio 1620-1623

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER EIGHT: THE GOVERNMENT OF D. LUIS DE BRACAMONTE, February 1620-1623 THE ARRIVAL OF D. LUIS DE BRACAMONTE IN TERNATE The new governor D. Luis de Bracamonte arrived in Ternate on February 10, 1620, with a fleet including 2 ...

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Moluccas 9 – The government of Pedro de Heredia in Ternate, 1623-1636

CAPITOLO NONO: IL GOVERNO DI PEDRO DE HEREDIA, Febbraio 1623-1636

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER NINE: THE GOVERNMENT OF PEDRO DE HEREDIA, February 1623-1636 THE ARRIVAL OF PEDRO DE HEREDIA IN TERNATE Pedro de Heredia was a veteran of the Moluccas, and as governor he will set a record of tenure as he ...

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Moluccas 10 – The government of Pedro Muñoz de Carmona y Mendiola in Ternate, 1636-1640

CAPITOLO DECIMO: IL GOVERNO DI PEDRO MUÑOZ DE CARMONA Y MENDIOLA, Marzo (?) 1636-Gennaio 1640

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER TEN: THE GOVERNMENT OF PEDRO MUÑOZ DE CARMONA Y MENDIOLA, March 1636-January 1640 THE ARRIVAL OF PEDRO MUÑOZ DE CARMONA Y MENDIOLA IN TERNATE The new governor of Ternate D. Pedro Muñoz de Carmona y Mendiola, appointed “alcayde”, ...

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Moluccas 11 – The last Spanish governors of the Moluccas, 1640-1663

CAPITOLO UNDICESIMO: GLI ULTIMI GOVERNATORI SPAGNOLI DI TERNATE, 1640-1663

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE LAST SPANISH GOVERNORS OF TERNATE, 1640-1663 D. FRANCISCO SUÁREZ DE FIGUEROA Y ACEVEDO, January 1640-1642 The new governor D. Francisco Suarez de Figueroa had left Spain for the Philippines in 1608 together with D. Juan de ...

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Moluccas 12 – Bibliography on the Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677

BIBLIOGRAFIA

The Spaniards in the Moluccas: 1606-1663/1671-1677. The history of the Spanish presence in the spice islands Written by Marco Ramerini. 2005-2020/23 INDEX 1: The first contacts of the Spaniards with the Moluccas2: The conquest of Ternate3: The government of Juan de Esquivel, May 1606-March 16094: The government of Lucas de Vergara Gabiria (acting the functions), March 1609-February 16105: The government of Cristóbal de Azcueta ...

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The three comets of 1618: a testimony from the spice islands, the Moluccas

Written by Marco Ramerini – 2021 In 1618, three very bright comets were visible in Europe in the space of a few months. A very rare event, which we approached in 1996-1997 with the two spectacular end-of-the-century comets: Hyakutake and the even more spectacular Hale-Bopp, which was visible to the naked eye for 18 months. The three comets of 1618 ...

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The Spanish town of Ternate: Ciudad del Rosario or Gammalamma

Reconstruction of the probable position of the city of Nuestra Señora del Rosario and of the Fuerza Nueva fort. Author Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Ternate, Terrenate, Thernate, Gamolamo, Ciudad del Rosario (or Rrosario), Gamma Lamma1 : (Current name: Kastela, Benteng Kastela o Kastella) (Under Spanish control: 1 April 1606-1663) The Spanish city of Ternate was in the southern part of the island, in the place now called Kastela, where, since 1521, were established the ...

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Ternate: The Spanish fort San Pedro

The plan of the Fuerza Nueva. Colin-Pastells “Labor Evangelica” vol. III p. 73

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. San Pedro, Sant Pedro, Fuerza Nueva: (1606/1610-1663) benteng Santo Pedro (Kastella) Among the defenses of the Spanish city of Ternate: Ciudad del Rosario. There was also a fort set on a hill in the surroundings of the city. This fort was called San Pedro. It seems that the Portuguese had ...

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Don Fernando Centeno Maldonado: from Algiers, to the Moluccas, to the Yucatan

Ternate and Tidore, Moluccas (1760), Indonesia. Author Bellin. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini, 2005-2021 (English translation: 2023) General index THE FAILED EXPEDITIONS TO ALGIERS 3 FIRST EXPEDITION TO ALGIERS 4 SECOND EXPEDITION TO ALGIERS 9 THE MOLUCCAS 10 THE CONQUIST OF TERNATE AND THE MOLUCCAS 10 THE EXPEDITION TO MALACCA 15 THE PHILIPPINES 18 THE YUCATAN 20 FIRST TERM OF GOVERNOR 20 SECOND TERM OF GOVERNOR 22 THE WIDOW ...

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The peripheral forts of the Spaniards in the Moluccas (1606-1677)

Mappa delle Molucche, 1630

Written by Marco Ramerini, 2005 (English edition: 2023) In this text I describe the information I have gathered over the years regarding the Spanish outposts in the peripheral islands of the Moluccas, therefore excluding the islands of Ternate and Tidore. Spanish control, in fact, was not limited only to the two main islands of Tidore and Ternate, which are treated ...

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Esteban de Alcázar, a soldier in the service of the king of Spain in Europe, the Philippines and the Moluccas

L'assedio di Rheinberg nel 1598

Written by Marco Ramerini – 2021 (English translation: 2023) General Index AROUND EUROPE p. 3 ARAGON, ITALY, FRANCE p. 3 FLANDERS, FRISIA, GELDRIA… p. 4 THE RETURN TO SPAIN p. 7 IN THE PHILIPPINES AND THE MOLUCCAS p. 10 THE CONQUEST OF TERNATE p. 10 THE FIRST BATTLE OF PLAYA HONDA p. 11 PERMANENCE IN TERNATE p. 11 THE WEDDING ...

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Tidore 1 – The Spanish forts on the island of Tidore 1521-1663: introduction

Ternate and Tidore, Moluccas (1760), Indonesia. Author Bellin. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. 1.0 INTRODUCTION This research aims to want to shed light on an aspect of the history of the Moluccas islands that is still largely unexplored. Its purpose is to trace through the study of manuscripts and other documents a preliminary framework of the fortifications, the Spanish had built on the ...

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