Arguin: A Portuguese Fortress in Mauritania 1445-1633

Plan of the fortress at the island of Arguin in 1721. Originaly plublished by Jean-Baptist Labat (1663-1728).

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Situated on the Arguin island (today Mauritania), this was the first fort the Portuguese built in Africa. The fort remained under Portuguese control between 1445 and 1633. The Arguin area was explored by the Portuguese around the years 1442-1444 by Gonçalo de Sintra (1442), Dinis Dias (1442), Nuno Tristão (1443) and Lançarote ...

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The Portuguese fort of Santiago, Cape Verde

Portuguese Fort Santiago, Cape Verde. Author and Copyright João Sarmento

Photos by João Sarmento. Written by Marco Ramerini. The Cidade Velha (Old Town) of the island of Santiago in Cape Verde islands is located 15 kilometers west of the city of Praia, along the Santiago island coast. It constitutes the first city built by Europeans in the tropics and the first capital of the Cape Verde archipelago. The settlement was originally named ...

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The Portuguese fort in São Tomé

Fort São Sebastião, São Tomé. Author and Copyright João Sarmento.

Photos by João Sarmento. Written by Marco Ramerini. The Portuguese Fort São Sebastião, São Tomé, São Tomé e Príncipe. The fort was built in 1575. The fort was occupied by the Dutch on 16 Oct. 1641. The Portuguese recaptured the fort on 15 December 1644. The Fort São Sebastião is square-shaped with bastions at each corner and now houses the São Tomé and Príncipe National Museum.

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The Portuguese forts in Morocco

Azemmour, Morocco. Author and Copyright João Sarmento

Photos by João Sarmento. Written by Marco Ramerini. Some pictures of what remains of forts built by the Portuguese in Morocco in the 15th and 16th century. Here are presented photos of Azamor (Azemmour), Safim (Safi) and Mazagão (El Jadida) taken by João Sarmento. The fort of Azamor (Azemmour) was under Portuguese control between 3 September 1513 and October 1541. The fort of Safim (Safi) called by ...

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Political Development of the former German Colonies since 1920

Lomé (1904), the way to the Governor's Palace. No Copyright

Written by Dietrich Köster COLONIES IN AFRICA GERMAN EAST AFRICA, takeover in 1884/85 Tanganyika Territory 1920 to the United Kingdom – 1961 Independent State of Tanganyika/1962 Republic of Tanganyika – April 1964 part of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar/ November 1964 United Republic of Tanzania Ruanda-Urundi 1920 to Belgium – 1962 Republic of Rwanda (northern part) and 1962 ...

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Maramuca: an exercise in the combined use of Portuguese records and oral tradition: the History of the Mwanamutapa Empire

Zimbabwe map

Written by D. P. Abraham Section I. INTRODUCTION: THE HISTORY OF THE MWANAMUTAPA EMPIRE At the start of the fifteenth century A.D. a group of patrilineal Bantu clans, collectively known as the Vakaranga, occupied in strength the south and south-west of what is now Southern Rhodesia. The population was mainly composed of small-scale peasant cultivators and cattle-breeders, who lived in ...

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Seventeenth Century Portuguese Earthworks in Rhodesia: Maramuca (Hartley/Chegutu)

Standing on the ancient workings looking towards the feira site

Written by P. S. Garlake Historical Monuments Commission, Rhodesia INTRODUCTION Two sites, one in the Mtoko (Mutoko) district containing two separate rectangular earthworks and the other in the Hartley (Chegutu) district with a single very similar earthwork have recently been identified and excavated. The excavations were on a very small scale intended primarily to provide, as far as possible, a ...

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Maramuca: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe

Standing on the ancient workings looking towards the feira site

Written by Chris Dunbar. All pictures are copyright by Chris Dunbar. Maramuca, 2010: The trip to Maramuca was via the town of Chegutu and then another 30 odd kilometres on an old strip road to the gold mining town of Chakari. From Chakari we had to travel on a dirt road which later turned into a dirt track. The location ...

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Great Zimbabwe: a ruined city in the southeastern hills of Zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe. Author and Copyright Chris Dunbar

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos copyright by Chris Dunbar. Great Zimbabwe was the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe where was the royal palace and the seat of the political power. The city was surrounded by massive walls that reach 5 meters in height which were constructed without mortar. The area where is Great Zimbabwe was occupied from the fourth century ...

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Portuguese Forts, Markets (Feira) and Settlements in Zimbabwe

Native sections of the walls that have survived. Luanze, Zimbabwe. Author and Copyright Chris Dunbar

Written by Chris Dunbar The following is a list of sites that were investigated by the Rhodesian / Zimbabwean Government, no suspected Portuguese sites have been restored (unfortunately) and no more have been added since the first cataloguing was done in the early 1970’s. A number of the historical trading centres and forts have still not been located and further ...

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Massapa: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe

View from Pre refuge dry stone walled fort which ruled over Massapa

Written by Chris Dunbar. All pictures are copyright by Chris Dunbar. Massapa was described in 1573 as being close to the wooded mountain Fura (Mt Darwin) had a Dominican Church dedicated to the Lady of the Rosary and was deserted in 1693 when the Rozvi went on the rampage that ended the Portuguese control on the whole Northern Zimbabwe plateau ...

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Piringani: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe

The trees are still successfully bearing a number of fruit, Piringani, Zimbabwe. Photo © by Chris Dunbar

Written by Chris Dunbar. All pictures are copyright by Chris Dunbar. So to Piringani (Piringani: 16°59′ 48.63″S 30°11′ 27.97″E), in the north west of Zimbabwe, in the farm lands of Doma, I went. Rumour had it that there was a Lemon forest and that it was marked and known by the local farmers and the Department of National Monuments. I ...

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