Map of Tranquebar 1733, India. No Copyright
Map of Tranquebar 1733, India

List of Danish colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini

DANISH COLONIAL SETTLEMENTS

ASIA

INDIA:

Tranquebar (Dansborg castle):

Danish: 1620-May 1801

English: (May 1801-Aug. 1802)

Danish: Aug. 1802-1808

English: (1808-20 Sep. 1815)

Danish: 20 Sep. 1815-7 Nov. 1845

English occupation: (7 Nov. 1845- 1947)

(U. B. J. p 41, 44) (H.F. p 298)

Pipely (Pipli): factory

1625- abandoned before 1643 (U. B. J. p 28)

Masulipatam: factory

1626 -abandoned before 1643 (U. B. J. web site)

Balasore: factory

1636-abandoned before 1643 1763-1845 (C. p 126) (U. B. J. web site)

Oddeway Torre (Malabar coast):

factory 1696 – 1722 (U. B. J. web site)

Gondalpara (Dannemarksnagore) (S-E of Chandernagore): Fortified factory

A part of Gondalpara is still (1919) called “Dinemardanga”, that is the land of the Danes.

1698/1700-1714 abandoned (C. p 126+U. B. J. p 28)

Calicut: factory

1752-1791 abandoned (U. B. J. p 29, 37)

Serampore (Frederiksnagore):

Danish: Oct. 1755-1808

English: (1808-1815?)

Danish: 1815 ?-11 Oct. 1845

English: (11 Oct. 1845-1947)

(C. p 126) (U. B. J. p 28, 41, 44) (H.F. p 302) (R. p 232)

Colachel (Malabar coast): factory

1755-1824 abandoned (U. B. J. p 29, 37)

NICOBAR ISLANDS (Frederik Oerne islands):

Grand Nicobar (Sambellong, northern side of the island):

1754/56-1760 abandoned (B2 p?) (R. p 232)

Kamorta island (Canlaha or Frederikshoi):

1760- 1768 abandoned (B1 p?) (B2 p?)

Nangkowry island:

Danish: 1768 Danish Mission -1773 abandoned

Danish: 1784 -1807/9 abandoned

Danish: 1830-1834 abandoned

Danish: 1846- ? abandoned

Denmark officially handed over the rigths of the Nicobar Islands to the British on 16 October 1868.

(B1 p?) (B2 p?) (U. B. J. p 29, 30)

SRI LANKA:

Trincomalee:

1620-1621 attempt to build a fort (U. B. J. p. 11,12)

INDONESIA:

Macassar (Sulawesi island): factory

? (H.F. p 326)

Bantam (Java island): factory

?-1682 (H.F. p 300)

AFRICA:

SIERRA LEONE:

Bagos:

16 lodge – 16

1661 lodge – Dec. 1662 destroyed by the Dutch (Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850” p. 25)

GHANA:

Cape Coast or Cabo Corço (Swedish name: Carolusborg or Carlsborg):

The Portuguese, English and Dutch had trading lodges in Cape Coast, but when the Swedes arrived they were unoccupied.

Swedish: (Apr. 1650 fort Carolusborg – Jan./Feb. 1658)

Danish: Jan./Feb. 1658 – 16 Apr. 1659

Dutch: (16 Apr. 1659- May/Jun. 1659)

Fetu: (May/Jun. 1659 – 10 Dec. 1660)

Swedish: (10 Dec. 1660 – 22 Apr. 1663)

Dutch: (22 Apr. 1663 – 3 May 1664)

English: (3 May 1664 – 1957)

(According to Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850”)

Dutch: 1638 factory – ? abandoned

Swedish: (1657-1658) the Swedes built the fort in 1657

Danish: 1658 – Apr. 1659

Dutch: (Apr. 1659-1659)

Fetu: (1659- 10 Dec. 1660)

Swedish: (10 Dec. 1660 -1660)

Danish: 1660-1663

Fetu: (1663-1663)

Dutch: (1663-1664)

English: (1664-1957)

(According to Lawrence “Trade castles and forts of West Africa” p 198)

Cape Coast or Cabo Corço:

Danish: 1659 lodge – 23 Mar. 1664 destroyed by the Dutch

Danish: May 1664 lodge – ?

(Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850” p. 26)

Cong (Cong Height):

Dutch: (? – 1659 abandoned)

Danish: 1659 – 24 Apr. 1661 destroyed by the Dutch

(Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850” p. 24)

Gemoree or Jumoree: 

Its location is not known.

Swedish: (165 ? fortified lodge – 1658)

Danish: 1658 – ? (Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850”)

Takoradi: (04°53’N – 01°45’W)

Swedish: (1653 fortified lodge – 1658)

Danish: 1658 – Apr. 1659 abandoned

Adja or Agga:

1658 lodge – ? (Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850”)

Anomabu:

Dutch: (1640 lodge – ?)

Swedish: (1652 lodge – 1658)

Danish: 1658 lodge – Apr. 1659 abandoned

Dutch: (lodge)

English: (166 ? lodge – ?)

(Van Dantzig “Les Hollandais sur la côte de Guinée 1680-1740”, A. W. Lawrence “Trade castles and forts of West Africa” p. 198, Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850”)

Amanful or Amanfro, Cape Coast (Ft. Fredriksborg or Frederiksberg): 

Danish: 1659 fort – 16 Apr. 1685

English: (16 Apr. 1685 – ) called by the British: Fort Royal.

(L. p 199) (E. p. 32; 40; 85) (Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850” )

Accra-Osu (Ft.Chistiansborg): 

Swedish: (1652 fortified lodge – 1658)

Danish: 1658 lodge – Apr. 1659 abandoned

Danish: 1661 fort – Dec. 1680

Portuguese: (Dec. 1680-29 Aug. 1682) abandoned

Akwamu: (Sep. 1682-Feb. 1683)

Danish: Feb. 1683-1693

Akwamu: (1693-1694)

Danish: 1694-1850

English: (1850-1957) (L. p 199-217)

(V. p 202-204) (E. p.83) (Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850” p. 10)

Provesten:

Watch-tower situated several hundred yards west of Christiansborg.

Before 1729-1850

Ningo (Ft.Fredensborg): 

Danish fort 1734 – Mar. 1850

English: (Mar. 1850-1957)

(E. p. 32; 40; 83)

Ada (Ft. Kongensten): 

Danish fort 1784 – Mar. 1850

English: (Mar. 1850-1957)

(E. p. 32; 40; 83)

Teshe (Ft. Augustaborg): 

Danish fort 1787- Mar. 1850

English: (Mar. 1850-1957)

(L. p 87) (E. p. 32; 40; 83)

Keta (Ft. Prinsensten):

Danish: lodge 1780 fort 1784 – 12 Mar. 1850

English: (12 Mar. 1850-1957)

(L. p 361-368) (E. p. 32; 40; 83)

Kpomkpo (Frederiksberg):

Hill-station 1788- ? (L. p 43)

SÃO TOMÉ:

São Tomé: lodge ?

Nørregård “Danish settlements in West Africa 1658-1850” p. 30

AMERICA, CARIBBEAN:

VIRGIN ISLANDS:

St. Thomas Island:

Danish: 1672- Apr. 1801

English: (Apr. 1801-Feb. 1802)

Danish: Feb. 1802-1807

English: (1807-1815)

Danish: 1815-31 Mar. 1917 (31 Mar 1917 sold to USA).

(W. p 2, 251, 261)

St. Jan Island (St. John):

Danish: 1716/17- Apr.1801

English: (Apr. 1801-Feb. 1802)

Danish: Feb. 1802-1807

English: (1807-1815)

Danish: 1815-31 Mar. 1917 (31 Mar 1917 sold to USA).

(W. p 2, 251, 261)

St. Croix Island:

French: (? -1733)

Danish: 1733 – Apr. 1801 (The Danes purchased St. Croix from France in 1733)

English: (Apr. 1801-Feb. 1802)

Danish: Feb. 1802-1807

English: (1807-1815)

Danish: 1815-31 Mar. 1917 (31 Mar 1917 sold to USA).

(W. p 2, 251, 261)

GREENLAND:

ICELAND:

FAROE:

Legend:
U.B.J.= Uno Barner Jensen “Danish East India: trade coins and the coins of Tranquebar” Brovst, 1997
C.= Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” Calcutta, 1919
B1= Babudieri “L’espansione mercantile Austriaca nei territori d’oltremare nel XVIII sec. e i suio riflessi politici ed economici” Milano, 1978
B2= Babudieri “Trieste e gli interessi Austriaci in Asia nei sec. XVIII-XIX” Padova, 1966
W= Westergaard “Danish West Indies under company rule 1671-1754, with a supplementary chapter 1755-1917” New York, 1917
L.= Lawrence “Trade castles and forts of West Africa” London, 1963
V.= Vogt “Portuguese rule on the Gold Coast 1469-1682” Athens, 1979
H.F.= Holden Furber “Imperi rivali nei mercati d’oriente 1600-1800” Bologna, 1986 English edition: “Rival Empires of trade in the Orient 1600-1800” Minneapolis, 1976
R.= Reinhard “Storia dell’espansione europea” Napoli, 1987 German edition: “Geschichte der europäischen Expansion” Stuttgart, 1983
E.= Epson “Ancient forts and castles of the Gold Coast (Ghana)” 1970

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