Author Archives: Marco Ramerini

Concepción mission, Chiquitania, Bolivia

Concepcion mission (1699), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  Concepción was first established as the mission of La Inmaculada Concepción in 1699, although this settlement lasted only until 1704. It was re-established in 1709 (a date that some historians incorrectly claim as its founding), and incorporated the nearby ephemeral mission of San Ignacio de Boococas in 1712. Concepción was established by Jesuit missionaries ...

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San Javier mission, Chiquitania, Bolivia

San Xavier mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck.

Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  San Javier (originally San Francisco Xavier de los Piñocas), the earliest permanent Jesuit mission in the Chiquitania, was founded by the missionaries José de Arce and Antonio de Rivas on 31 December 1691. It was rebuilt three times (in 1696, 1698, and 1705-6) before assuming its present form in 1708. Today it is a ...

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The Long Silence: The Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos after the Extrañamiento

San Xavier mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck.

Written by Geoffrey A P Groesbeck Introduction There is much still to discover regarding the early history of the Jesuit missions (reducciones1) of Chiquitos2 (1691-1767). By now it has been reasonably well documented3, albeit in greater detail in Spanish and German than in English. Over the last three decades, scholarly research on these missions’ individual and collective artistic, musical, and ...

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A Brief History of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos

Concepcion mission (1699), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Written by Geoffrey A P Groesbeck Introduction It is a simple fact that no comprehensive history of the Jesuit missions of Chiquitos1 exists in English.2 There are numerous accounts in Spanish, most of which rely primarily upon two secondary sources dating from the nineteenth century: D’Orbigny’s recollections of his travels in the region between 1831 and 18333, and René-Moreno’s numerous ...

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Le tre comete del 1618: una testimonianza dalle isole delle spezie, le Molucche

La grande cometa del 1618 nel cielo di Heidelberg.

Scritto da Marco Ramerini Nel 1618 in Europa furono visibili tre comete molto luminose nello spazio di pochi mesi. Un evento rarissimo, al quale ci siamo avvicinati nel 1996-1997 con le due spettacolari comete di fine secolo: la Hyakutake e la ancor più spettacolare Hale-Bopp, che fu visibile a occhio nudo per ben 18 mesi. Anche le tre comete del ...

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Esteban de Alcázar, un soldato al servizio del re di Spagna in Europa, alle Filippine e alle Molucche

L'assedio di Rheinberg nel 1598

Scritto da Marco Ramerini, 2021 La figura di Esteban de Alcázar, è quella di un classico soldato di Spagna degli anni a cavallo tra la fine del cinquecento e l’inizio del seicento. Nelle mie ricerche l’ho trovato nelle Molucche fin dalla conquista di Ternate nel 1606. In questo studio ho cercato di ricostruire i fatti salienti della sua vita. Negli ...

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I forti periferici degli spagnoli alle isole Molucche (1606-1677)

Mappa delle Molucche, 1630

Scritto da Marco Ramerini, 2005-2021 In questo testo descrivo le informazioni che, negli anni, ho raccolto riguardo agli avamposti spagnoli nelle isole periferiche delle Molucche, quindi escludendo le isole di Ternate e Tidore. Il controllo spagnolo, infatti, non si limitò soltanto alle due isole principali di Tidore e Ternate, che sono trattate in dettaglio in altri miei studi.1 Gli spagnoli ...

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New book on the Spice islands: Spain and Moluccas in the 16th and 17th centuries

In the Spice islands. Spain and Moluccas in the 16th and 17th centuries

On the occasion of the celebrations of the 500th anniversary of Ferdinando Magellano’s first trip around the world. A new book about the Spice Islands has just been published by the Spanish publishing house Desperta-Ferro, specialized in Spanish military history. It is a large format book (384 pages, 189 x 246 mm), and includes old maps. I had the honor ...

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Arguin: A Portuguese Fortress in Mauritania 1445-1633

Plan of the fortress at the island of Arguin in 1721. Originaly plublished by Jean-Baptist Labat (1663-1728).

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Situated on the Arguin island (today Mauritania), this was the first fort the Portuguese built in Africa. The fort remained under Portuguese control between 1445 and 1633. The Arguin area was explored by the Portuguese around the years 1442-1444 by Gonçalo de Sintra (1442), Dinis Dias (1442), Nuno Tristão (1443) and Lançarote ...

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The forts of the Saint-Martin island: Fort Amsterdam and Fort Louis

Fort Amsterdam, Sint Maarten. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. The island of Saint-Martin (Sint Maarten) is an island of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. The island is located between the islands of Anguilla and Saint-Barthélemy and has the distinction of being divided between France and the Netherlands. This division dates back to the treaty signed by the two countries in 1648 (Treaty of Concordia) ...

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The main fort of Fernando de Noronha: Fortress of Nossa Senhora Dos Remédios

The entrance gate and the front walls of the fort, Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The fortress of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios is the most important fortification of the entire defensive system built on the island of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil) by the Portuguese in the eighteenth century and is located on a hill between the Bay of Santo António and the Praia do Cachorro. ...

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The Forts of Fernando de Noronha

The view towards the Morro do Pico from the round tower of the Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Fernando de Noronha was discovered by the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci in 1503. In 1504 the Crown granted the archipelago as a “capitania hereditária” to a Portuguese lord, Fernão de Noronha, from whom it takes its name. The archipelago was occupied by two other European nations (Dutch and French) during the ...

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