Author Archives: Marco Ramerini

The Dutch West India Company. WIC (West-Indische Compagnie)

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The WIC (West-Indische Compagnie) Dutch West India Company was a Dutch trading company shaped after the example of the VOC (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie – Dutch East India Company). On June 3, 1621 it was granted a charter for the ‘right on shipping and trade’ and a 24 years monopoly of ...

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Bittangabee Bay ruins, Australia

Bittangabee Bay ruins. Author and Copyright Jones Matos da Silva.,

Text and Photos by Jones Matos da Silva Bittangabee Bay is located in Ben Boyd National Park to the south of the coastal town of Eden along the south coast of New South Wales, Australia. These ruins are claimed by Kenneth McIntyre to be of Portuguese origin. I drove there last month and took me 8 hours drive from Sydney (480 ...

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Australia and the Dutch East India Company (VOC)

Written by Peter Reynders There have been a number of early European based ‘monopoly companies’ trading in Asia. The combined impact of the Portuguese Estado da India, the first practitioner of the monopoly product principle, the Muscovy, the Ostend, the Swedish and the English East India Companies, the VOC (Dutch East India Company) and the many smaller enterprises of the vast, ...

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Isle of Pines: Prison ruins and Cemetery of the Deported (Cemetery of the Communards) in New Caledonia

Kanumera, Isle of Pines, New Caledonia. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Located south-east of Grande Terre (New Caledonia), the Isle of Pines is a small island full of natural wonders, endless white beaches and crystal clear water, caves and caverns, rich coral reef, natural wonders like the natural pool (piscine naturelle) with seawater, inhabited by a friendly population with rich traditions. ...

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Fort Teremba: a prison for deportees in New Caledonia (Grande Terre)

Bac de l'Ouaieme, Grande Terre, New Caledonia. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. This fort is situated between La Foa and Bourail, 124 kilometers north of Nouméa. In 1871 a group of 25 convicts, 2 wardens, 3 gendarmes and the head of the topographical department set up a camp on the left bank of La Foa river near the Kanak village of Uarai, ...

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Russian presence in Hawaii. Russian forts and settlements in Hawaii

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. In the early 19th century Russian fur traders established trading centers from Siberia into the North American subcontinent, Russian cargo vessels regularly transecting the northern Pacific Ocean. In January 1815 a Russian-American Company vessel, named “Bering”, that traded furs for food throughout the Hawaiian Islands, was shipwrecked at Waimea, Kauai. ...

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Micronesia (1565-1994), Forgotten Island World in the Pacific

Written by Dietrich Köster German-Micronesia – also called “Island Territory” of German New Guinea – is the far-flung island world north of the equator in the Western Central Pacific and was up to 1914/1920 the northern part of German New Guinea, supplemented by the island of Nauru, lying just south of the equator. The land area is only slightly more ...

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India. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini Under Costruction… INDIA: GUJARAT MAHARASHTRA Vengurla, Wingurla: Netherlands: trading office and fort 1638 – ? Source: Disney, A. “Twilight of the pepper empire”  KARNATAKA Mangalore, Mangalor: KERALA Cochin: (Cochim, Cochin, Kochin, Couchyn, Couchin, Coutchin) Netherlands: 7/8 Jan. 1663 – 20 Oct. 1795 to the English Vypin: (Vypin, Baipin, Waipin, Vaipin) Ajengo:  Netherlands: factory TAMIL NADU Negapatam: (Nagappattinam, Nagapatnam, Negapatnam) ...

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Indonesia. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini Under Costruction… INDONESIA: Batavia: Netherlands: 1619 – Poelo Gontong (Sumatra): Netherlands: ? – 1765 On the tiny island of Poelo Gontong, in east Sumatra, the Company set up a guard post even before the Siak area had been conquered. This military outpost soon acquired a reputation as an unhealthy place with a high percentage of fatalities. ...

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Sri Lanka (Ceylon). List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini SRI LANKA: WEST COAST (North of Colombo) Colombo: (Colombo, Columbo, Calamba, Kolombo, Colombe) (6°56′ N – 79°51′ E) Hultsdorf: (Hulffsdorp, Hulfsdorp, Hulftsdorp, Hulsdorp, Hulstsdorp) Kasteel Netherlands: 12 May 1656 – 16 Feb 1796 British: 16 Feb 1796 – Sources: Brohier “Links between Sri Lanka and The Netherlands: a book of Dutch Ceylon” Ribeiro “The historic tragedy ...

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South America. List of Dutch forts and colonial possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. COLOMBIA Santa Marta: Netherlands: 16 Feb. 1630 – 21/22 Feb. 1630 abandoned to Spain Goslinga “The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast 1580 – 1680”  VENEZUELA: Punta de Araya: Goslinga “The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast 1580 – 1680” Isla Tortuga: Goslinga “The Dutch in the ...

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North America. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini USA CONNECTICUT: Fort Goed Hope (Hartford): Fort Goed Hope, Fort Huis ter Hope DELAWARE: Prinseneiland, Moordenaarseiland (Murderer’s Island, Prince’s Island): Fort Wilhelmus Fort Casimir (Newcastle): Nieuw Amstel, Fort Nieuwer Amstel, Fort Drie-eenheid Altona, Altena (Wilmington): Fort Christina, Fort Altena Blommaerts Kil, Horekil, Whorekill, Hoerenkill: Compagniesfort, Compagniesfort Whorekill Swaenendael (Lewes): MAINE: Pentagouet: Netherlands: Aug. 1674 – Sep. ...

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South East Asia and the Far East. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini BANGLA DESH: Dhecca, Decca (Dhaka): Netherlands: trading office Until 1704 Dhaka was the seat of the Nawab of Bengal. From 1664 the Nawab functioned as the viceroy of Bengal. He sent an emissary to the administration of the Company in Batavia requesting aid in his battle against the Arakan. Both the Dutch and the English established ...

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Central America. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. PUERTO RICO San Juan de Puerto Rico: Netherlands: Sep. 1625 – 2 Nov. 1625 abandoned to Spain The Dutch occupied only the town and the fort of Canuela at the bay entrance. The fort of Canuela is retaken by the Spanish after three weeks. The Morro Fortress remains in the ...

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Arabia and Persian Gulf. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. YEMEN Aden: Netherlands: trading office: August 1620- November/December 1620 On 22 August 1620 the Dutch ship “‘T Wapen van Zeelandt” reached Aden; here the Dutch immediately rented a house. When the ship left Aden, five servants and a supply of goods (worth about 42.000 guilders) were left in the trading post ...

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Africa. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions

Fort Nassau at Mouri, Ghana. Author Johannes Kip (1704). No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini MAURITANIA: Arguin: (20°36’N – 16°27’W) Netherlands: 1633 – 1 Sep. 1678 to France (1 Sep. 1678 – Sep. 1678) abandoned (1678 – 1685) to Brandenburg (5 Oct. 1685 – 9/10 Mar. 1721) to France (10 Mar. 1721 – 11 Jan. 1722) Netherlands: 11 Jan. 1722 – 20 Feb. 1724 to France (20 Feb. 1724 – Mar. 1728) ...

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India. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. INDIA: Diu: (20°43’N – 71°00’E) Forte or Castelo do Mar, Castelo de Diu or Fortaleza de São Tomé Portuguese: 21 Dec. 1535 fortress – 18/19 Dec. 1961 Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” Island of Diu: Fortaleza de Nagoa (1744), Fortaleza de Brancavara (1774), Forte de Simbor, Forte de ...

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Sri Lanka (Ceylon). List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. SRI LANKA (CEYLON): Portuguese: 1518 – 1597 the Kingdom of Kotte is tributary to Portugal. Portuguese: 1597: the whole of the territory of the Kingdom of Kotte is under the control of the Portuguese, they control four Provinces or Disawani: Matara (along the sea coast from Kotte to Walawe Ganga), Saparagamuwa (north of Matara ...

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West Africa. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions

Elmina Castle, 1668. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. SPANISH AFRICA: Ceuta:  Portuguese: 21 August 1415 – 1640 to Spain (after the Portuguese rebellion) E. Sanceau “Castelos em África” Livraria Civilização 1961 Porto. D. Lopes “A Expansão em Marrocos” Teorema Lisboa MOROCCO: Alcacer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir): (35°51’N – 05°34’W) Portuguese: 23 October 1458 – 1550 E. Sanceau “Castelos ...

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South East Asia and in Far East Asia. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. BURMA: Martabão (Martaban): (16°32’N – 97°36’E) Portuguese: 1514 feitoria – 1516 Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700” Tenasserim: (12°06’N – 98°56’E) Portuguese: wooden fort on a hill ...

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