Spanish Colonialism

The Spanish fortresses on the island of Tidore 1521-1663: introduction

Ternate and Tidore, Moluccas (1760), Indonesia. Author Bellin. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. 1.0 INTRODUCTION This research aims to want to shed light on an aspect of the history of the Moluccas islands that is still largely unexplored. Its purpose is to trace through the study of manuscripts and other documents a preliminary framework of the fortifications, the Spanish had built on the ...

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Ternate: The Spanish fort San Pedro

The plan of the Fuerza Nueva. Colin-Pastells “Labor Evangelica” vol. III p. 73

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. San Pedro, Sant Pedro, Fuerza Nueva: (1606/1610-1663) benteng Santo Pedro (Kastella) Among the defenses of the Spanish city of Ternate: Ciudad del Rosario. There was also a fort set on a hill in the surroundings of the city. This fort was called San Pedro. It seems that the Portuguese had ...

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The Spanish town of Ternate: Ciudad del Rosario or Gammalamma

Reconstruction of the probable position of the city of Nuestra Señora del Rosario and of the Fuerza Nueva fort. Author Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Ternate, Terrenate, Thernate, Gamolamo, Ciudad del Rosario (or Rrosario), Gamma Lamma1 : (Current name: Kastela, Benteng Kastela o Kastella) (Under Spanish control: 1 April 1606-1663) The Spanish city of Ternate was in the southern part of the island, in the place now called Kastela, where, since 1521, were established the ...

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Santa Ana de Velasco Mission: Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

Santa Ana de Velasco mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  Santa Ana de Velasco is a small village in the department of Santa Cruz  in the Amazonian plains of Bolivia near the border with Brazil. The village lies at an altitude of 464 metres and at about 40 km south-east of San Ignacio de Velasco. The mission of Santa Ana de Velasco is one of the last ...

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San Xavier Mission: Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

San Xavier mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck.

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  San Javier is a small town in the department of Beni in the Amazonian plains of the State of Bolivia. The city lies at an altitude of 537 metres between the Rio Paquius and the Río San Julián. The town of Concepcion is located 60 km north-east, while the city of Santa ...

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San Rafael de Velasco Mission: Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

San Rafael de Velasco mission (1696), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  This mission is located in the town of  San Rafael de Velasco which is located in Eastern Bolivia, about 40 km east of the city of San Miguel de Velasco and approximately 470 km north-east of the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. The city lies at an altitude of 408 meters in the ...

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San Miguel de Velasco Mission: Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

San Miguel de Velasco mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  This mission is located in the town of  San Miguel de Velasco which is located in Eastern Bolivia, about 30 km south of the city of San Ignacio de Velasco. The city lies at an altitude of 485 meters in the region of Chiquitanía, an unspoilt area of Bolivia between the cities of Santa ...

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San Ignacio de Velasco Mission: Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

San Ignacio de Velasco mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  This mission is located in the town of San Ignacio de Velasco which is located in Eastern Bolivia, about 480 kilometers north-east of the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra on a hill near the headwaters of the river Paragua. The town is located at a height of 410 meters on the banks ...

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Concepción Mission: Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

Concepcion mission (1699), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck  This mission is located in the town of Concepción which is located in Eastern Bolivia, about 280 km north-east of the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. The mission of Concepción was founded in 1699 by the Jesuits Fr. Francisco Lucas Caballero and Fr. Francisco Herbás. A few years after its foundation, ...

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Competing Allegiances, Life in the Reducciones, The End of an Era: the Expulsion of the Jesuits, After the Expulsion. Jesuit Missions in Bolivia

Concepcion mission (1699), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 10: The Second Period: 1748-1767, Santa Ana de Velasco, The Last Attempt: Nuestra Señora del Buen Consejo Competing Allegiances Politically, the Chiquitos reducciones owed nominal allegiance to the Spanish crownF1F through the Audiencia of Charcas, with ...

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