America

San Xavier: The First Jesuit Reducción in Chiquitos, The Passing of Arce and the Closing of the Road to Paraguay, Additional Jesuit Missions in Chiquitos. Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

San José de Chiquitos mission (1697), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 7: Successes Outside the Chiquitania, The Arrival of Arce and the Search for the Road to Paraguay, A Fortuitous Mistake Decides Everything San Xavier: The First Jesuit Reducción in Chiquitos Nonetheless, on the feast of St. ...

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Successes Outside the Chiquitania. Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

San Rafael de Velasco mission (1696), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 6: The First Jesuits in Bolivia, The Doctrina of Juli, Arrival in Santa Cruz de la Sierra Successes Outside the Chiquitania At the same time that they were making incursions into the Chiquitania, the Jesuits penetrated ...

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The First Jesuits in Bolivia, The Doctrina of Juli, Arrival in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

San Ignacio de Velasco mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 5: What Are These Missions Now? Lacunas and Guesswork The First Jesuits in Bolivia The first Jesuit missionaries arrived in what is now Bolivia in 1572, having moved eastward from the Viceroyalty of Peru, which had ...

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What Are These Missions Now? Lacunas and Guesswork. Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

Concepcion mission (1699), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 4: How Did the Jesuits of Chiquitos Communicate with the Jesuits of Paraguay? The Way Forward, Success and Failure What Are These Missions Now? Perhaps the most egregious error is the misunderstanding, actively promoted by the ...

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How Did the Jesuits of Chiquitos Communicate with the Jesuits of Paraguay? Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

San Miguel de Velasco mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 3: Who Constructed the Mission Churches? How Did the Jesuits of Chiquitos Communicate with the Jesuits of Paraguay? A frequent assumption still made by many writers today is that the Jesuits stationed in Chiquitos were in ...

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Who Constructed the Mission Churches? Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

Santa Ana de Velasco mission, Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 2: How Many Jesuit Missions Were Founded? Who Constructed the Mission Churches? Another often-repeated error is that the first permanent (not provisional) churches of the mission complexes, or conjuntos misionales, of the Jesuit missions in the ...

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How Many Jesuit Missions Were Founded? Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Bolivia)

Concepcion mission (1699), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck – Part 1: Introduction: Traditional and Later Research Efforts, Recent Research and Its Consequences, Challenges to Current Research How Many Jesuit Missions Were Founded? Thanks to the carrying-forward of erroneous assumptions made by earlier writers who did not verify ...

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Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos (Eastern Bolivia)

San José de Chiquitos mission (1697), Bolivia. Photo Copyright by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck

Evanescence and Permanence: Toward an Accurate Understanding of the Legacy of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos. Written by Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck This article and its companion piece, “The Long Silence: The Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos after the Extrañamiento”, are two halves of a whole, written primarily to remedy the fact that no accurate historical overview of the twelve Jesuit ...

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The Forts of Fernando de Noronha

The view towards the Morro do Pico from the round tower of the Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Fernando de Noronha was discovered by the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci in 1503. In 1504 the Crown granted the archipelago as a “capitania hereditária” to a Portuguese lord, Fernão de Noronha, from whom it takes its name. The archipelago was occupied by two other European nations (Dutch and French) during the ...

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The main fort of Fernando de Noronha: Fortress of Nossa Senhora Dos Remédios

The entrance gate and the front walls of the fort, Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The fortress of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios is the most important fortification of the entire defensive system built on the island of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil) by the Portuguese in the eighteenth century and is located on a hill between the Bay of Santo António and the Praia do Cachorro. ...

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