Author Archives: Marco Ramerini

Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. PORTUGUESE EMPIRE: SRI LANKA (CEYLON) MALDIVES: – Bell, H. C. P., “The Portuguese on the Maldives” in: “Excerpta Maldiviana”, Ceylon Royal Archeological Society Journal” vol. XXXII, 1931 SRI LANKA (CEYLON): – Various Authors, “History of Ceylon”, vol. I, parts 1 & 2: “Pre-Colonial Period” ?, University of Ceylon, 1959/60, Colombo, ...

Read More »

Asia. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Map of Asia (1627). Authors Bertius; Danckerts; Tavernier. No Copyright

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. PORTUGUESE EMPIRE: ASIA ASIA SOURCES: – Various Authors “Documantação Ultramarina Portuguesa” 8 vols., Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1966, 1967, 1973,1975,1983, Lisboa, Portugal. – Various Authors “Livro das cidades e fortalezas que a coroa de Portugal tem nas partes da Índia ….”, CEHU 1960 Lisbon, Portugal – ...

Read More »

Architecture, Artillery, Numismatics, Furniture and Arts. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. PORTUGUESE EMPIRE: ARCHITECTURE, ARTILLERY, FURNITURE AND ARTS, NUMISMATICS ARCHITECTURE: – Various Authors, “A arquitectura militar na expansão portuguesa ” 160 pp., Catálogo da Exposição, CNPCDP, 1994, Porto, Portugal. – Carita, Helder, “Arquitectura civil indo-portuguesa: génese e primeiros modelos”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, Sep/Dec. 1994 pp. 114-133 – Chaves, L. “Os monumentos ...

Read More »

Arabia, Persian Gulf. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. PORTUGUESE EMPIRE: MIDDLE EAST ARABIA, PERSIAN GULF: – Al-Khalifa, Shaikh Abdullah Bin Khalid and Abahussain, Dr. Ali “Bahrain Through The Ages – Vol.2”, Historical Documents Centre, 1995, Bahrain 1 The Carmathians of Bahrain; 2 The Ayounis; 3 The Zenk and the Selgrids; 4 The Juboors; 5 The Portuguese; 6 The ...

Read More »

America. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. PORTUGUESE EMPIRE: AMERICA NORTH AMERICA: – Silva, Manuel Luciano da, “Portuguese Pilgrims and Dighton Rock” 100 pp. Nelson D. Martins Editor, 1971, Bristol, Rhode Island, USA This book deals with the inscriptions of Dighton Rock. Index: Portuguese pilgrims and Dighton Rock; the known world in 1415; Prince Henry’s school of ...

Read More »

Africa. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. PORTUGUESE EMPIRE: AFRICA AFRICA GENERAL: – Various Authors “Portugaliae Monumenta Africana” 500+608 pp. 2 vols., Casa da Moeda, 1993-1995, Lisbon, Portugal. – Fernandes, J. M. “Luís Benavente e as fortalezas de África (1956-1973)” In: “Oceanos” n° 28 Oct/Dec. 1996 pp. 41-52 – Madeira Santos, Maria Emília “Viagens de exploração ao ...

Read More »

The Dutch East India Company: VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie)

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) symbol it's still at the entrance gate of the Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop), Cape Town, South Africa. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. In March 1594 some Dutch merchants founded a “Company of Far Lands” at Amsterdam. Their objective was to send two fleets to the East Indies. The first fleet of four ships reached Bantam and returned to the Netherlands in August 1597. Only three ships with a small cargo of pepper ...

Read More »

Map of Dutch settlements in Guyana and Suriname 1600-1750

Map of Dutch settlements in Guyana and Suriname 1600-1750. Author Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Around 1600 Spain had occupied in the Caribbean four large islands: Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. These islands together with Mexico and Central America as far south as Guatemala formed the viceroyalty of New Spain. The Lesser Antilles were left unoccupied by Spain due to the ferocity of their ...

Read More »

Portuguese Empire: Africa, America and Asia maps

Map of the Portuguese settlements in Africa and America around 1600. Author Marco Ramerini

Written by Marco Ramerini Anywhere on the coasts of Asia, America and Africa you can find a fort, a church, a geographical name or a family name, reminiscent of Portugal. These are the remains of the first European country that explored the world in search of spices and souls. Afonso de Albuquerque’s dream was an infusion of Portuguese blood into ...

Read More »

Portuguese Fort at Bidyah in the United Arab Emirates

Trench F, Portuguese Fort, Bidyah, United Arab Emirates (photo © by Michele Ziolkowski)

Written by Marco Ramerini, Photos and Information by Michele Ziolkowski The town of Bidyah in the United Arab Emirates, is found midway along the coast between Fujairah and Dibba. According to the Portuguese souces, the Portuguese had in the area a fort called Libidia. A team consisting of Australian and local archaeologists excavated the area in 1999. The site of ...

Read More »

The Dutch in Formosa 1624-1662, 1664-1668

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. After the failed attempt to conquer Macao in 1622 the Dutch settled on the Pescadores islands (building a fort in Makung) between Formosa and China. In 1624 a Chinese attack compelled them to move on to nearby Formosa. They founded the castle of Zeelandia in 1624 on an island near ...

Read More »

The Dutch Governors of Ceylon

Written by Marco Ramerini. THE DUTCH GOVERNORS OF CEYLON Willem Jacobsz COSTER 1640 Jan THIJSSEN 1640 – 1646 Joan MAETSUYCKER 1646 – 1650 Jacob van KITTENSTEYN 1650 – 1653 Adriaan van der MEIJDEN 1653 – 1662 Rijcklof van GOENS 1662 – 1663 Jacob HUSTAERT 1663 – 1664 Rijcklof van GOENS 1665 – 1675 Rijcklof van GOENS junior 1675 – 1679 ...

Read More »

Index of the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon

Dutch Fort, Galle, Sri Lanka. Author and Copyright Dietrich Köster

Written by Marco Ramerini For more information on the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon you can contact: Victor Melder at: VICTOR MELDER SRI LANKA LIBRARY 7, Benambra Street Broadmeadows, Vic 3047 Australia Web site: www.vmsl-library.com The library has the entire set of the Dutch Burgher Union Journals, published from 1908 to date and also the indexes to the ...

Read More »

Dutch and Portuguese remains in Sri Lanka: forts and churches

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. DUTCH AND PORTUGUESE REMAINS IN NORTHERN SRI LANKA JAFFNA The Portuguese built the fortress Nossa Senhora dos Milagres in 1560. Jaffna was the last place in Portuguese hands in Ceylon. They lost it in 1658. The Dutch strengthened the fort around 1680. The old Dutch fort of considerable size with ...

Read More »

The Portuguese in Ceylon: The Portuguese in Sri Lanka before the war with the Dutch

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The first Portuguese visiting Ceylon was Dom Lourenço de Almeida in 1505 or 1506. Accidentally, after a storm, adverse winds drove him to the island’s coast near Galle. In the last months of the years 1505 or 1506 Dom Lourenço’s fleet anchored off Colombo. A memorial of this first landing ...

Read More »

The Dutch Burghers of Sri Lanka. Dutch Ceylon

Dutch Fort, Galle, Sri Lanka. Author and Copyright Dietrich Köster

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The history of the Dutch in Ceylon began during the command of Admiral Joris van Spilbergen on 31 May 1602, when the first Dutch ships, which visited Ceylon, anchored off the port of Batticaloa. The Portuguese under Afonso de Albuquerque started right from the beginning with the experiment of a ...

Read More »

Description of the Portuguese Forts and Settlements in Ceylon, as narrated by Captain João Ribeiro

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. COLOMBO: The city of Colombo, the main city of today’s Sri Lanka, was founded by the Portuguese. The first Portuguese attempt to settle in Colombo was done in 1518, when the Viceroy Lopo Soares de Albergaria landed in Colombo with a large fleet. Here the Portuguese soldiers began to build ...

Read More »

Trincomalee 9 – Bibliography. The History of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka) during Portuguese and Dutch rule

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The first British occupation and the definitive Dutch surrender 9.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY CONSULTED MATERIAL You can also look for the sources quoted in the notes. SOURCES: – Various Authors “Livro das plantas, das fortalezas, cidades e povoações do Estado da Índia Oriental”, 1991 Codex n° 1471, Paço Ducal of ...

Read More »

Trincomalee 8 – The first British occupation and the definitive Dutch surrender

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The consolidation of the Dutch presence 8.0 THE FIRST BRITISH OCCUPATION AND THE DEFINITIVE DUTCH SURRENDER In December 1780 the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland declared war to The Netherlands. The news reached Ceylon in June 1781 and some preparations were made by the government of ...

Read More »

Trincomalee 7 – The consolidation of the Dutch presence

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The French attempt 7.0 THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE DUTCH PRESENCE This period of instability resulted in a remarkable decrease of the volume of commerce, dealt with Trincomalee. The figures of this decline are inconsistent, but it seems that in the first ten years of Dutch occupation the commerce ...

Read More »