India. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster.



– Badalkhan, Sabir “Portuguese encounters with coastal Makran Baloch during the sixteenth century. Some references from a Balochi heroic epic” in: “Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society” Series 3, 10, 2 (2000) pp. 153-169

– Deus Ramos, Joao de “Merchants and missionaries: Portuguese settlements at the mouth of the Indus in the 16th and 17th centuries” In: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 243-245, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Subrahmanyam, Sanjay “The Portuguese, Thatta and the External Trade of Sind, 1515-1635”, in: The special issue of “Revista de Cultura” 1991, Macau.


– Various Authors “Civiltà indiana ed impatto europeo nei secoli XVI-XVIII, l’ apporto dei viaggiatori e missionari italiani” 234 pp., 1 map, Edizioni Universitarie Jaca 1988 Milan, Italy Wicki, G. “Influenze della civiltà europea su quella indiana nel ‘500 e ‘600; Wicki, G. “I cinque concili di Goa (1567-1606) e l’attitudine portoghese verso i costumi dell’India (l’influenza del concilio di Trento); Wicki, G. “La formazione della gioventù indo-europea a Goa; D’Arienzo, V. “Presenze italiane nell’Asia portoghese tra il XVI ed il XVII secolo”; Sorge, G. “La cristianità malabarica”; Truzzi, A. “P. Roberto Nobili e la sua apologia”; de Ghantuz Cubbe, M. “La fondazione della missione dei Carmelitani scalzi a Goa (1619)”; Sorge, G. “L’azione svolta dai Carmelitani scalzi, principalmente italiani, nella cristianità malabarica durante il secolo XVII”; Cimino, R. M. “Un missionario italiano alla corte dei< >: il padre Francesco Corsi. Una sua lettera inedita”; Cimino, R. M., “Eustachio Delfini”.

– Afzal Ahmad “Indo-Portuguese Trade on the West Coast of India (1600-1663)” ?, xx, 226 pp. illus. 1991 This work based on original documents that covers history, politics, commerce and brings out the interesting transformation of traders and commercial agents into empire builders.

– Bouchon, G. “A imagem da Índia na Europa renascentista” In: “Oceanos” n°32, Oct/Dec. 1997 pp. 11-30

– Correia da Silva, A. G. “Os Franceses na colonização portuguesa da Índia”, in: STUDIA N° 4, pp. 7- 105, 1959, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Das Gupta, Ashin “Merchants of maritime India, 1500-1800” ?, 315 pp., illustrastions. Aldershot Variorum, 1994, Brookfield, Verm.

– Disney, A. R. “An early imperial crisis: the Portuguese Empire in India in the early seventeenth century and its responses to the Anglo-Dutch challenge” ?, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University, 1971

– Elampassery, Peter Celestine “Early Capuchin Mission in India 1632-1834” ?, Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, 1983.

– Feldbauer, Peter “Die Portugiesen in Asien 1498-1620”, 254 pp. Magnus Verlag, Essen, 2005, ISBN 3-88400-435-2

– Gaspar Rodrigues, Vitor Luís, “As companhias de ordenança no Estado Português da Índia, 1510-1580”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, September/December 1994 pp. 212-218

– Kyne, David A. “Casados, Fidalgos, Mestiços and Soldados. Indo-Portuguese Society in India in the 16th and 17th Century” ??? Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Concordia University, 1997, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

– Lima Cruz, Maria Augusta “As vozes da Índia nas décadas da Ásia de Diogo do Couto”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, September/December 1994 pp. 182-188

– Lobato, A. “Relação Luso-Maratas 1658-1738” ?, 188 pp., Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1965, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Madan, K. D. “Life and Travels of Vasco da Gama” ?, xxix, 140 pp., maps, 1998, Contents: Preface. Introduction. 1. Earlier Portuguese expeditions in quest of a route to India. 2. Columbus strays west. 3. A brief hiatus, and then the mantle falls on Vasco. 4. The first voyage of Vasco da Gama 1497-1499. 5. A follow-up voyage by another Captain-Major – Cabral. 6. To Malabar encore with a vengeance 1502-03. 7. Sidelined but not dispirited. 8. Onto his acme – and end. Epilogue : requiem to a ‘Rogue’. Bibliography and source material. Index

– Marjay, Frederic P. “Portuguese India, a Historic Study” ?, 52 pp. + heliogravures and photos, 80 pp. plates. Livraria Bertrand, 1959, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Mathew, K. S. “Portuguese trade with India in the sixteenth century” Manohar Publications, 1983, Delhi, India.

– Naravane M. S. “The Maritime and Coastal Forts of India” 191, xix p. maps, Aph Publishing Corporation 1998 New Delhi, India In this book are described 151 maritime and coastal forts of India, built by the Portuguese, the French, the Dutch, the English and the Indians. Very interesting.

– Pearson, M. N. “The Portuguese in India” ?, XVIII, 178 pp. Cambridge University Press, 1994, Cambridge.

– Pearson M. N “Coastal western India studies from the Portuguese records” ?, Concept, 1981, New Delhi, India.

– Pescatello, Ann M. “The African Presence in Portuguese India” ? In: “Journal of Asian History” Vol. 11, 1977; pp. 26-48.

– Shirodkar, P. P. “Dutch-Portuguese relations in the East (1580-1663): vis à vis on the Indian Peninsula”, in: STUDIA N° 48, pp. 123-144, 1989, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Shirodkar, P. P. “Researches in Indo-Portuguese History” ?, 2 Vols., Publication Scheme, 1998, Jaipur, India. This volume is a collection of research papers of very vital importance for the study of Indo-Portuguese History.

– Schurhammer, Georg “The India-letters of 1533”, in: “O Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos e as Comemorações” 217-256 pp. 1961, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Subrahmanyam, S. “O gentio indiano visto pelos portugueses no século XVI”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, September/December 1994 pp. 190-196

– Subrahmanyam, S. “Merchants, Markets and the State in Early Modern India” ?, 284 pp. Oxford University Press,1990, India. Sanjay Subrahmanyam: The Portuguese, the port of Basrur and the rice trade, 1600-1650; Stewart Gordon: Burhanpur: Entrepôt and Hinterland, 1650-1750; Joseph J. Brennig: Textile producers and production in late seventeenth-century northern Coromandel; Madhavi Bajekal: The state and the rural grain market in eighteenth-century eastern Rajasthan; Om Prakash: Opium monopoly in India and Indonesia in the 18th century; Rajat Datta: Merchants and peasants: A study of the structure of the local trade in grain in late 18th century Bengal; KumKum Banerjee: Grain traders and the East India Company: Patna and its hinterland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; S. Arasaratnam: Weavers, merchants and the company: The handloom industry in southeastern India, 1750-1790; David Ludden: Agrarian commercialism in eighteenth-century South India: Evidence from the 1823 Tirunelveli census; Sanjay Subrahmanyam, & C.A. Bayly: Portfolio capitalists and the political economy of early modern India.

– Whiteway, R.S. “The rise of the Portuguese power in India, 1497 – 1550” ?, 356 pp. 1899 The author has attempted to give a History of the rise of the Portuguese power in India derived from the best available sources and to give, not merely a record of Military Expeditions and of the change of Governors, but also the details which throw light on the social life and on the idiosyncrasies of the chief men of the time.


– Albuquerque, Teresa, “Epigraphy of Bassein”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 311-320, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Arasaratnam, S. and Aniruddha, R., “Masulipatnam and Cambay: a history of two port towns, 1500-1800” ?, xiii, 314pp. maps Munshiram Manoharlal, 1994, New Delhi, India.

– Baptista, Elsie W. “The East Indians – Catholic community of Bombay, Salsete and Bassein” ?, 255 pp. Publications of the Anthropos Institute N° 3, The Bombay East Indian Association, 1967, Bandra, Bombay.

– Barros, Joseph de “A presença Portuguesa em Baçaim: sua génese geo-histórica”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 41-47, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Borges, Charles J. and Feldmann, Helmut “Goa and Portugal – their cultural links” ?, 320 pp. maps, Concept Publication Co., 1997, New Delhi, India. A collection of 21 papers on the theme: “Intercultural Relations: Portugal and Goa”. Covers aspects like 16th century life in Goa, contacts with Japan and Mozambique, and aspects of art, music and literature. I. Goa and Portugal and their various cultural relations: 1. Socio-cultural life in Goa during the 16th century/P.P. Shirodkar. 2. The impact of Portuguese culture on Goa: a myth or a reality?/Fatima da Silva Gracias. 3. A lasting cultural legacy: the role of the Society of Jesus in reforming Goan society/Charles J. Borges. 4. Conversion as a means to cultural adaptation: the catechumens of Betim in the 18th century/M. de Jesus dos Mártires Lopes. 5. Present day administration in Goa/Oscar Pereira. II. Goa in its Contacts with Japan and Mozambique: 6. The image of India in the history of the church in Japan by João Rodrigues, S.J./Helmut Feldmann. 7. Relations between Japan and Goa in the 16th and 17th centuries/Takashi Gonoi. 8. Intercultural links between Goa and Mozambique in their colonial and contemporary history: literary Mozambican traces/Manfred F. Prinz. III. Art, Architecture, Music and Numismatics: 9. Connecting histories: Portuguese Music in renaissance Goa/Victor A. Coelho. 10. Goan and Christian architecture of the 16th century/ António N. Pereira. 11. Old Goa in the context of Indian heritage/Percival Noronha. 12. Evolution of Bazarucos of Portuguese India: their classifications and an unpublished value of 1748/Fenelon Rebello. IV. Goa-Portugal Ties as Reflected in Literature: 13. The Portuguese in the Goan folklore/—– Teotónio R. de Souza 14. Desassossego in Luso-Indian Goan poetry/George V. Coelho. 15. Influence of Portuguese language and culture of Damão /Athos Fernandes. 16. 16 March 1554: reflections of a mid-sixteenth century scene in Goa/Engelbert Jorissen. 17. From peregrination to pilgrimage: Tabucchi’s Notturno Indiano/Thomas Sträter. 18. Goa in the novel “O Signo da Ira by Orlando da Costa”/Helmut Siepmann. 19. Antam de Proençã’s Tamil-Portuguese Dictionary, printed in India 1679/Thomas Malten. 20. Dravidian borrowings from Portuguese (Kannada and Telugu)/Dieter B. Kapp. 21. An afterword: the churches of Goa – a world heritage programme of UNESCO/Michael Jansen. Bibliography. Index.

– Borges, Charles J. “Jesuit economic interests in the Portuguese province of the North till the mid-18th century”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 49-56, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Bras, A. Fernandes “Armas e inscrições do forte de Baçaim” 282 pp. maps, ill. Academia Portuguesa da História 1957 Lisbon, Portugal. The complete list and also the descriptions of the inscriptions present in Baçaim fort.

– Canaveira, M. F. “Goa dourada”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, Sep/Dec. 1994 pp. 204-210

– Chandeigne, Michel “Goa 1510-1685 : l’Inde portugaise, apostolique et commerciale” ?, 225 pp. illustrations. Autrement, 1996, Paris, France.

– Correia, A. G. da Silva “Luso-descendentes da Índia: estudo antroposociológico; histórico-demográfico e aclimatológico” ? 303pp. edição do Autor, 1940

– Cottineau de Kloguen, D. L. “A historical sketch of Goa”, 120 pp. Asian Educational Service, 1988 (1831), New Delhi & Madras, India.

– Couto, Dejanirah, “Em torno da concessão e da fortaleza de Baçaim 1529-1546″, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 117-126, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Couto, Dejanirah, “A fortaleza de Baçaim”, in: “Oceanos” n° 28, October/December 1996, pp. 105-118

– Couto, Dejanirah “Baçaim, a capital do norte”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, September/December, 1994 pp. 258-266

– Cunha, J. Gerson da, “The origin of Bombay” 368 pp Asian Educational Services, 1993 (1900), New Delhi, India. The Hindu period, the Mahomedan period, the Portuguese period, the early British period, the later British period.

– Cunha, G. da, “Notes on the history and antiquities of Chaul and Bassein”, 278 pp. Map & illustrations, 1993 (1876), Bombay, India. The geographical position of Chaul, origin of its name, origin of the name Revadanda, designation of Chaul by Greek writers, its description by the medieval Arabs, Puranic period, the Hindu period, the Mahomedan period, the Portuguese period, the Maratha period, the English period, antiquities, fortification of Chaul, the geographical position of Bassein, origin of its name, designation of Bassein by Greek writers, Puranic period, the Hindu period, the Mahomedan period, the Portuguese period, the Maratha period, the English period, antiquities, Tana, Salcete, Caranja, fortification of Bassein.

– Delgado Henriques, Cristina, “Velha Goa”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, September/December 1994 pp. 199-202

– Fernandes, José Manuel, “Chaul um percurso urbano e fotográfico”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, Sep/Dec. 1994 pp. 268-271

– Ferracuti, Giovanni “Goa: memoria e immagine. Architettura e città dell’India portoghese” ?, 128 pp., 110 illustrations. Lybra, 1991, Milano, Italy, Photos of Goa and Damão.

– Fonseca, José Nicolau da, “A historical and archaeological sketch of the city of Goa” ?, 348 pp., 1878 A short statistical account of the Territory of Goa together with historical and archaeological details of the City of Goa. A most comprehensive history of Goa in a format associated with gazetteers. Also carries important statistical information including charts about population, marriages, births and deaths in the year 1877.

– Gaspar Rodrigues, Vitor Luís “A organização militar da Província do Norte durante o século XVI e princípios do século XVII”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 247-265, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Goertz, R. O. W., “Attack and defense techniques in the siege of Chaul, 1570-1571”, in: Various Authors “II Seminário Internacional de História Indo–Portuguesa” 265-287 pp. IICT & CEHCA 1985, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Guigaz, M. & Amiot, J. P., “Goa, capital d’empire”, in: Critique N° XLIV, pp. 628-639. Éditions de Minuit /Centre National des Lettres, 1988, Paris, France

– Hull, Ernest R. “Bombay mission-history, with a special study of the padroado question (1534-1858)” ?, vii+493 pp., 7 color maps, Bombay Examiner Press, 1927.

– Jackson, K. D. “Ruinas de império: a cidade-fortaleza de Chaul”, in: “6° Congresso da Associação Internacional de Lusitanistas” 8-13 Aug. 1999, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

– Jena, D., “Portuguese Gujarat trade”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 149-156, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Larsen, Karin “Faces of Goa : A Journey through the History and Cultural Evolution of Goa and other Communities influenced by the Portuguese” ?, 507 pp. map, 1998, India. Contents: Introduction. I. Culture: 1. Exploring the nature of culture and cultural dynamics. 2. History of the Konkan Territory known as Goa. 3. Evolution of social history and political economy of Goa. 4. Liberation: causes and consequences. 5. Communities in the old and new conquests. II. Migration: 6. Migration: processes and products. 7. Migrants in Bombay. 8. Goan migration to the south: a new Mangalorean Identity and Southern Migration of the Konkanies: GSB’s and Kunbis in Bangalore. III. Portuguese Influence: 9. Fort Cochin. 10. Damão. 11. Bassein fort area. 12. Conclusions. Bibliography. Index.

– Leão , M. C. “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” 223 pp. several maps and illustrations, Instituto Cultural de Macau, 1996, Macau. This book deals with the old Portuguese province of Baçaim, today Vasai (North of Bombay/Mumbai). Bassein, Diu, Damão, Bombay, Chaul.

– Leão, Mario “Reflexo de Portugal na cultura Goesa”, in: “Boletim do Centro de Estudos Marítimos de Macau” 73 – 84 pp. N° 2 Jan. 1989, Macau.

– Mártires Lopes, Maria de Jesus dos, “Aspectos da política religiosa na província do Norte, em setecentos”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 175-179, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Mathew, K. S. “Portuguese and the Sultanate of Gujarat, 1500-1573” ?, viii + 263 pp., Maps, Mittal Publications, 1986, Delhi, India.

– Mathew, K. S. “The Portuguese naval establishments” in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 181-184, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Mathew, K. S. “Maritime trade of Gujarat and the Portuguese in the sixteenth century”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 187-194, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Meersman, A. “The Franciscans in Bombay. History of the Franciscans in the territory comprised within the boundaries of the present archdiocese of Bombay” ?, xvii+279 pp., 1957, Bangalore, India.

– Melo Furtado, Edith, “Reacting to a transition. The case of Goa”, in: “Lusotopie 2000” pp. 477-486

– Michaelsen, Stephan “The Ottoman expedition to Diu in 1538″, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 209-215, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Mitterwallner, G. von, “Chaul: eine unerforschte Stadt an der Westküste Indiens (Wehr-, Sakral- und Profanarchitektur)”, 238 pp. ills and 2 maps 1964 Berlin, Germany.

– Oliveira e Costa, João Paulo “Simão de Andrade fidalgo da Índia e capitão de Chaul”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 99-111, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Pereira, A. B. de Bragança, “Os Portugueses em Diu” ?, Tip. Rangel, 1938, Bastora, Índia Portuguesa.

– Pereira, A. B. de Bragança, “Os portugueses em Baçaim” ?, 220 pp., Separata de: “O Oriente Português”, Tip. Rangel 1935 Bastorá, in: Oriente Português N° 7/8/9, pp. 97-313

– Pinto, Janette “The decline of slavery in Portuguese India with special reference to the North”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 235-240, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Ribeiro, Luciano “O primeiro cerco de Diu”, in: “STUDIA” N° 1, pp. 201-271, 1958, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Ribeiro Lume, José Miguel, “A cultura literária em Goa como referência da herança cultural portuguesa na Índia ” Internet article.

– Rossa, W. “Indo-Portuguese cities”, 117 pp., illustrations Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses 1997 Lisbon Very interesting descriptions of the Portuguese town of Goa, Chaul, Baçaim, Damão, Diu, Cochin.

– Santos, Isau “A cedência de Bombaim aos Ingleses”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 267-290, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Severy, Merle “Três homens em Goa”, in: “Oceanos”, n°19-20, September/December 1994, pp. 220-230

– Shastry, B.S. “Goa-Kanara Portuguese Relations – 1498-1763” ???, Maps, (Ed. by Charles J. Borges) XCHR Studies Series n° 8, Concept Publishing Company, 2000, New Delhi, India. This work deals with the Portuguese arrival in India and later at Kanara, their attempts to take over Bhatkal, their fortresses on the Kanara Coast and their relationship with the Nayakas of Ikkeri from 1499-1763. Contents: 1. Introduction : The Portuguese Arrival in India; 2. The Portuguese Arrival at Kanara; 3. Gersoppa’s Hand in the Portuguese Capture of Goa; 4. The Portuguese Attempts to take over Bhatkal; 5. The Portuguese Fortresses on the Kanara Coast; 6. The Portuguese and the Nayakas of Ikkeri – I (1499-1629); 7. The Portuguese and the Nayakas of Ikkeri – II (1629 -1645); 8. The Portuguese and the Nayakas of Ikkeri – III (1645-1660); 9. The Portuguese and the Nayakas of Ikkeri – IV (1660-1763); 10. The Portuguese and Christianity in Kanara; 11. The Portuguese Trade and Commerce in Kanara

– Shirodkar, P. P. “Bombay and the Portuguese impact and influences with special reference to etymology”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 291-301, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Soeiro de Brito, Raquel “Goa e as praças do Norte”, 196 pp. Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, 1966 (CNCDP 1998), Lisbon, Portugal.

– Soeiro de Brito, Raquel “Goa: ontem e hoje”, in: “Oceanos” n°19-20, —– September/December 1994 pp. 174-180

– Souza, Teotónio R. de, “North-South in the Estado da Índia”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 453-458, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Souza, Teotónio R. de, “The Portuguese in the Goan folklore”, in: ed. Borges, Charles J. & Feldmann, Helmut “Goa and Portugal: Their Cultural Links” 183-197 pp. Concept Publ. Co., 1997, New Delhi, India.

– Souza, Teotónio R. de, “Is there one Goan identity, several or none ?”, in: “Lusotopie 2000” pp. 487-495

– Souza, Teotónio R. de, “Lusofonia e Lusotópia no Oriente: o caso do folklore goês”, in: “Humani Nihil Alienum” (Revista de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Universidade Lusófona), nº. 1, 2º Semestre, pp. 109-110. 1999, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Souza, Teotónio R. de, “The rural economy and society in Portuguese India: colonial reality v/s stereotypes”, in: Various Authors “Vasco da Gama e a India” Vol. II; 101-109 pp. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1999, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Varela Gomes, Paulo and Rossa, Walter, “O primeiro território. Bombaim e os Portugueses” ???, in: “Oceanos” n° 41, 2000.

– Velinkar, Joseph, “Early Jesuit presence in Bassein”, in: Mare Liberum, Revista de História dos Mares N° 9, ” VII Seminário internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa, Goa 1994″, pp. 305-310, 1995, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Xavier, Carlos, “A cidade e o porto de Damão nos séculos XVIII e XIX”, in: STUDIA N° 46, pp. 287-301, 1987, Lisbon, Portugal.


– Chathaparampil, Joseph, “Kerala Catholics: a brief history”, Internet article The Kerala Organization, 1995, Louisville, KY, USA.

– Correia, J. M., “Os Portugueses no Malabar (1498 – 1580)”, 450 pp. 1 map, Imprensa Nacional – Casa da Moeda 1997 Lisbon, Portugal. Wars, fortresses, mission, art, architecture of the first 80 years of the Portuguese presence in Malabar.

– Cunha, J. Gerson da, “The Portuguese in South Kanara” ???, in: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1895-1897, vol. XIX, pp. 249-262.

– Disney, A. “Twilight of the pepper Empire”, VII, 220 pp. Harvard Historica studies 95, Harvard University press, 1978, Cambridge, MA, USA.

– Ferroli, D. “The Jesuits in Malabar” ?, vol. I, 520 pp., Bangalore Press, 1939, Bangalore, India., vol. II, xxiii + iv + 622 pp., 1951, Bangalore, India.

– Goertz, R. O. W. “The Portuguese in Cochin in the mid-sixteenth century”, in: STUDIA N° 49, pp. 5-38, 1989, Lisbon, Portugal.

– John, P. K., “Jews of Kerala”, Internet article 1998, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

– Kieniewicz, Jan, “The Portuguese factory and trade in Pepper in Malabar during the 16th century”, in: “An Expanding World” Vol. n° 11; Pearson, M. N. “Spice in the Indian Ocean world” Ashgate, Variorum, vol. n° 11, 1996; pp. 185-208, also in: “The Indian Economic and Social History Review”, Vol. VI New Delhi, 1969, pp. 61-84

– Mathew, K. S. “The Portuguese and the Malabar society during the sixteenth century. A study of mutual interaction” in: STUDIA N° 49, pp. 39-68, 1989, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Mathew, K.S. and Ahmad, Afzal, “Emergence of Cochin in the Pre-Industrial Era : A Study of Portuguese Cochin” ???, xliii + 153 pp. plates, illustrations, Maps Pondicherry University, Dept. of History, 1990, Pondicherry, India. Consists of a 33 page introduction + 132pp. documents ca.1527 – 1616.

– Meyer, Raphael “The Jews of Cochin”, Internet article American Asian Kashrus Services, 1995

– Mulakara, Gervasis, “Portuguese missionaries in Cochin till 1558”, in: STUDIA N° 49, pp. 69-94, 1989, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Mundadan, A. M. “The town of Cochin and the Portuguese” In: Various Authors “II Seminario Internacional de Historia Indo – Portuguesa” 251-263 pp. IICT & CEHCA 1985 Lisboa, Portugal.

– Panikkar, K.M. “Malabar and the Portuguese” x, 224 pp. Voice of India, 1997 (1929), New Delhi, India. A succinct history of the violent Portuguese intervention in Malabar written by a consummate Indian historian.

– Panikkar, K. M. “A History of Kerala 1498-1801” ?, 467 pp. The Annamalai University, 1960, Annamalaingar, India.

– Rodrigues, J., “Terra nossa na costa do Malabar” ?, 274 pp. Africa Editora, 1961, Lourenço Marques, Mozambique.

– Segal, J. B. “A History of the Jews of Cochin” ?, 134 pp. International Specialized Book Services, 1993

– Shokoohy, Mehrdad “The town of Cochin and its Muslim heritage on the Malabar coast, South India”, in: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, series 3, 8, part 3, 1998, pp. 351-361(394)

– Vellian, Jacobs “The beginnings of latinization of the Malabar Liturgy 1599-1606” ? 183 pp. Unpublished PhD. Thesis University of Notre Dame, 1973

– Zain al Din or Zinadim “História dos Portugueses no Malabar” ?, ciii 94, 134 pp., 4 maps, Imprensa Nacional, 1998, Lisbon, Portugal. The other side of the Portuguese presence in Asia.


– Various Authors “Commerce and Culture in the Bay of Bengal, 1500-1800” ? 416 p. plates, edited by Om Prakash and Denys Lombard, 1999, 1. Rivalry and competition in the Bay of Bengal in the eleventh century and its bearing on Indian Ocean Studies/Hermann Kulke. 2. Trade between South India and China, 1368-1644/Haraprasad Ray. 3. ‘Persianization’ and ‘Mercantilism’: two themes in Bay of Bengal History, 1400-1700/Sanjay Subrahmanyam. 4. Religious and scholarly exchanges between the Singhalese Sangha and the Arakanese and Burmese Theravadin Communities: historical documentation and physical evidence/Catherine Raymond. 5. Portuguese control over the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal: a comparative study/ Luís Filipe F.R. Thomaz. 6. Banten and the Bay of Bengal during the sixteenth and seventeenth century /Claude Guillot. 7. The Indian world as seen from Aceh in the seventeenth century/Denys Lombard. 8. The French establishment in Bengal: challenges and responses, 1674-1719/Aniruddha Ray. 9. Indian entrepreneurs and maritime trade in the Bay of Bengal during the eighteenth century with special reference to Ananda Ranga Pillai/K.S. Mathew. 10. From hostility to collaboration: European corporate enterprise and private trade in the Bay of Bengal, 1500-1800/Om Prakash. 11. British capital for the VOC in Bengal/Femme S. Gaastra. 12. The Chulia Merchants of southern Coromandel in the eighteenth century: a case for continuity/Bhaswati Bhattacharya. 13. Coromandel’s Bay of Bengal trade, 1740-1800: a study of continuities and changes/S. Arasaratnam. 14. Markets, bullion and Bengal’s commercial economy: an eighteenth century perspective/Rajat Datta. 15. Syncretic symbolism and textiles: Indo-Thai expressions/Lotika Varadarajan. 16. Bengal as reflected in two South-East Asian Travelogues from the early nineteenth century/Claudine Salmon.

– Arasaratnam, S. and Aniruddha, R. “Masulipatnam and Cambay: a history of two port towns, 1500-1800” ? xiii, 314pp. maps Munshiram Manoharlal, 1994, New Delhi, India.

– Banerji, Chitrita “How Bengal Discovered Chhana” Portuguese influences in Bengala food.

– Caldwell, R. Bishop “The Portuguese on the coast of Tinnevelly, the pearl fishery, Tuticorin under the Portuguese”, in: – Caldwell, R. Bishop “A history of Tinnevelly” ? pp.67-78, Asian Educational Services, Reprint 1982 (1881, Madras), India. – Campos, J. J. A. “History of the Portuguese in Bengal”, 283 pp. 3 maps Butterworth & Co. 1919 Calcutta, India. An old, but very interesting, book about the Portuguese history in Bengal, history unknown to many people. I. The rise of the Portuguese in Bengal: 1. Portuguese epic period. 2. Bengal : the paradise of India. 3. Early expeditions to Bengal. 4. Portuguese settlements in the Hooghly district. 5. The growth of the settlement of Hooghly. 6. Portuguese settlements in Eastern Bengal. 7 The rise of Sebastião Gonçalves Tibau. 8. Minor settlements of the Portuguese. 9. Portuguese missionaries. 10. Portuguese trade in Bengal. II. The decline and fall of the Portuguese in Bengal: 11. The period of decadence. 12. The fall of Hooghly. 13. The return of the Portuguese to Hooghly. 14. Eastern Bengal. III. Relics of the Portuguese in Bengal: 15. The relics. 16. Portuguese descendants (Luso-Indians). 17. Portuguese language. 18. Portuguese churches.

– Cortesão, Armando ” A cidade de Bengala do século XVI e os Portugueses” ?, 35 pp., Tip. da Sociedade Astória, 1944, Lisboa – Deliege, R., “Cristianismo e intocabilidade numa aldeia Paraiyar (Sul da Índia)”, in: “Oceanos” n° 34; Apr/Jun. 1998; pp. 164-172

– Fernando, Venantius “The impact of the Portuguese Padroado on the Indian Pearl Fishery Coast: guidelines for renewal and practical indigenisation of the Church” ?, Unpublished Dissertation, Urban University, 1977, Rome, Italy.

– Ferroli, D. “The jesuits and Mysore” ? 238 pp., Xavier Press, 1955, Kozhikode, India. – Jeyaseela, Stephen S. “Portuguese in the Tamil Coast : Historical Explorations in Commerce and Culture, 1507-1749” xix + 437 pp. Illus., Maps, Navajothi Publishing House, 1998, Pondicherry, India. I. BEFORE THE ADVENT OF THE PORTUGUESE 1. Medieval ports on the Tamil Coast, A.D. 1280-1500: Nagapattinão, Devipattinão, Virapandyanpattinão, Kayal, Kilakkarai, Periyapattinão, Devanampattinão, Saduranga Pattinão, Nagore, Thirumalairayanpattinão, Thirumullai vasal, Krishnapattinão, Pulicat. 2. Overseas trade from the Tamil Coast: Trade with China 3. Hinterland trade: Markets and commodities, Taxes and duties, Merchants and merchant guilds, Medieval Shipbuilding and Navigation. II. COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE PORTUGUESE IN THE PEARL FISHERY COAST 1. Portuguese in Kayal, 1508-1536 2. Portuguese contacts with Kilakkarai, 1508-1531 3. Portuguese settlement of Vedalai, 1520-1573 4. Punnaikayal pearl fishery, 1544-1579 5. Portuguese revenues from pearl fishery 6. Pearl fishing at Tuticorin, 1570-1658 7. Trade in chanks and pearls III. PORTUGUESE TRADE IN STRATEGIC COMMODITIES 1. Portuguese trade in horses 2. Saltpetre from the Coromandel Coast 3. Elephants for the nayak of Gingee 4. Saltpetre from the Madurai nayakdom 5. Horses and elephants for the nayak of Thanjavur IV. EXPORT TRADE OF THE PORTUGUESE IN BULK GOODS 1. Export of rice to Malabar, Sri Lanka and South East Asia 2. Export of textiles from Pulicat and São Thomé 3. Weaving centres and types of cloth 4. Textile exports from Kunimedu and Nagore 5. Export of textiles from Nagapattinão, Porto Novo and Devanampattinão 6. Export of diverse bulk goods from the Coromandel Coast: Iron and cannon balls 7. Coir 8. Butter, salt, oil and meat 9. Slaves 10. Leather V. SURVIVAL OF PORTUGUESE PRIVATE SHIPPING AND TRADE 1. Luso-Dutch rivalry and the misdeeds of Captains in Mylapore 2. Violence, disorder and anarchy in the Portuguese settlements 3. Commercial activities of the Portuguese private traders with the Dutch and the English 4. Portuguese diamond merchants and the English East India Company in Madras 5. Portuguese textile merchants 6. Portuguese shipowners in Porto Novo 7. Portuguese shipowners in Madras and their trade with Manila VI. IMPORT TRADE OF THE PORTUGUESE 1. Cloves from the Moluccas, Amboina and Makassar 2. Pepper from Aceh 3. Nutmegs from Banten 4. Cinnamon and arecanuts from Sri Lanka 5. Silk and porcelain from China 6. Precious stones from Burma and Sri Lanka 7. Gold import from Melaka 8. Import of silver 9. Import of copper and other metals 10. Import of miscellaneous goods VII. URBANISATION OF PORT SETTLEMENTS 1. Devanampattinão 2. Nagapattinão 3. São Thome of Mylapore: population 4. The municipality 5. Fortifications 6. Fort 7. Roads 8. Market 9. Vicissitudes of São Thomé 1662-1749 10. Revival of trade in Santhome, 1712-1746 11. Establishment of a mint VIII. EVANGELISATION BY THE PADROADO MISSIONARIES 1. The advent of the Roman Catholic Church on the Tamil Coast : The Franciscan missionaries 2. The Jesuits and the spread of Christianity on the Tamil Coast: Diocese of Kochi and the missionaries on the Tamil Coast 3. Mylapore Diocese: Royal grants and donations to churches and religious orders 4. Missionaries in the Pearl Fishery Coast 1584 -1662 5. Conversions in the hinterland, 1600-1662 : Capuchins in Madras and Pondicherry, 1642-1739 6. Missionary work on the Tamil Coast and its hinterland, 1700-1749 7. The origin and growth of Christian Insitutions in the Tamil region : The Church of St.Thomas in São Thomé of Mylapore 8. Chapels in the fort of São Thomé 9. Chapels outside the fort of São Thomé 10. Churches in the environs of São Thomé 11. Churches at various stations in the Tamil Country 12. Devanampattinão 13. Manapad 14. Tuticorin 15. Madurai 16. Porto Novo 17. Tranquebar 18. Nagapattinão 19. Pondicherry 20. Madras 21. Seminaries 22. Schools and colleges 23. Sodalities 24. Orphanages 25. Holy Houses of Mercy 26. Hospitals 27. Tombs IX. CONTRIBUTION TO TAMIL LANGUAGE, LITERATURE AND CULTURE 1. First Tamil book printed in Portugal 2. First printing press in India to print books in Tamil 3. Thambiran Vanakkam, 1578 4. Style and structure of Tamil printed books 5. Methods of learning Tamil by Fr. Henrique Henriques and Fr. Antão Proença 6. Tamil grammar and lexicography 7. Development of Tamil prose 8. Krisittiyani Vanakkam,1579 9. Confessionário, 1580 10. Flos Sanctorum,1586 11. Tamil-Portuguese Dictionary, 1679 12. Portuguese usages in Tamil 13. Adoption of Tamil calendar in the publications 14. Tamil works of Henrique Henriques 15. Tamil writings of Roberto Nobili 16. Translations of Fr. Baltazar da Costa from Tamil into Portuguese 17. Tamil works of Fr. Jean Venant Bouchet 18. Tamil writings of Fr. Giuseppe Constantino Beschi 19. Portuguese impact on Tamil Culture.

– Jeyaseela Stephen S. “Coromandel Coast And Its Hinterland: Economy, Society and Political System, 1500-1600” ? 269 pp. Manohar Publishers & Distributors, 1997, Delhi, India. Introduction. 1. Historical geography and political economy of the Coromandel Coast. 2. Agrarian relations and agricultural production. 3. Craft economy of the Hinterland and the coast. 4. Rural and urban linkages of internal trade. 5. External trade of Coromandel. 6. Social environment. Conclusion. Appendices. Glossary. Select bibliography. Index. This book examines the fascinating interaction between the Vijayanagara rulers and the Portuguese on the Coromandel Coast and its Hinterland during the sixteenth century.

– Mc Pherson, K. “Uma história de duas conversões: deus, a cobiça e o desenvolvimento de novas comunidades na região do Oceano Índico”, in: “Oceanos” n° 34; Apr/Jun. 1998; pp. 74-85

– Meersman, A. “The Franciscans in Tamilnad” ? Neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft, Supplement XII, Schöneck-Beckenried, 1962, Suisse.

– Miranada, Benny, “History of the Holy Cross Church, Manapad”, Internet article.

– Mordechai, Arbell “The Portuguese Jewish community of Madras, India, in the Seventeenth century”, in: “Los Muestros. The Sephardic Voice”, n° 41, Dec. 2000

– Roche, Patrick Anthony “The Paravas of the Coromandel: a history of a sea-faring Caste” ?, 334 pp., PhD. Thesis University of Minnesota, 1977

– Roche, Patrick Anthony “Fishermen of the Coromandel. A social study of the Paravas of the Coromandel” ?, Manohar Publishers & Distributors, 1984, New Delhi, India.

– Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, “Comércio e conflito: a presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala” Original Title: “Improvising empire, Portuguese trade and settlement in the Bay of Bengal 1500-1700”, 293 pp., Edições 70, 1994, Lisbon A collection of very interesting Subrahmanyam’s articles: “Piero Strozzi: um Florentino em Terras Portuguesas da Ásia 1510-1522”, “O Comércio entre Coromandel e Malacca no Século XVI”, “O proveito aos Pés do Apóstolo: a Povoação Portuguesa de Meliapor no século XVI”, “O comércio e a Bandeira: os Portugueses em Negapatão 1530-1658”, “Notas acerca do comércio de Bengala no século XVI”, “A resposta portuguesa a ascensão de Masulipatao 1570-1600”, “A cauda abana o cão: o subimperialismo e o Estado da Índia 1570-1600”, “Duas perspectivas da Malaca Portuguesa da década de 1620”, “A empresa de Paleacate: o conflito Luso-Holandês no Sueste da Índia 1610-1640”, “A permanência: os Portugueses no sul do Coromandel em fins do século XVII”.

– Subrahmanyam, Sanjay “The South Coromandel Portuguese in the late 17th century: a study of the Porto Novo. Nagapattinam complex”, in: STUDIA N° 49, pp. 341-363, 1989, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Varadarajan, L. “São Thomé: early European activities and aspirations”, in: Various Authors, “II Seminário Internacional de História Indo–Portuguesa” 429-441 pp. IICT & CEHCA 1985 Lisbon, Portugal.

– Velgean, Fernando “Portuguese influence in the Christian community (Manapad)”, Internet article.

– Vink, Markus “The Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of the Fishery Coast: The Portuguese-Dutch Struggle for the Control of the Parava Community of Southeastern India, 1645-1691.” ???, Paper presented at the conference: “The Evolution of Portuguese Asia, Quincentenary Reflections 1498-1998”, Charleston, South Carolina, Columbia University 1999.

About Marco Ramerini

I am passionate about history, especially the history of geographical explorations and colonialism.