The Portuguese first conquered and sacked Mascate in Oman in 1507. The Portuguese retained the control over Muscat for more than a century. The Turks conquered from the Portuguese Muscat on two occasions: in 1552 and in 1581-1588. The fortifications of Muscat were reinforced by Belchior Calaça in 1588 by order of the governor of Portuguese India Don Manuel de Sousa Coutinho.
The fortifications of the city of Muscat were based on the presence in strategic points of the bay of two imposing fortifications: the Forte do Almirante (Al-Mirani Fort) and the Forte de São João (Al-Jalali Fort), which flank and dominate the entrance to the bay. The Milanese architect Giovanni Battista Cairati since 1590 improved the defenses of the city.
After the loss of the fortress of Hormuz, in 1622, the port of Muscat became the main base of the Portuguese fleet in the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Portuguese lost Muscat on 26 Janaury 1650.
For the image thanks to Prof. Nuno Varela Rubim and Prof. Rui Carita (“O Lyvro de Plantaforma das Fortalezas da Índia, na Fortaleza de S. Julião da Barra, com 22 plantas de anónimo (I Manuel Godinho de Erédia, de cerca de 1620), e 55 plantas de anónimo (II de cerca de 1640)”).