Map of Indonesia (1780). Author Rigobert Bonne and Guilleme Raynal. No Copyright
Map of Indonesia (1780). Author Rigobert Bonne and Guilleme Raynal

Indonesia, Timor. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster.



– Various Authors, “Portugis Aceh” ?, in: “Gatra” n° 34, 18 Jul. 1995, Era Media Informasi, Jakarta, Indonesia. pp. 51-64

– Various Authors, “East Flores: the Brotherhood of the Queen of Rosaries. Three and a half centuries of lament and celebration”, Internet article.

– Abdurachman, Paramita Rahayu, “Traces of former Portuguese settlements in present-day Moluccas” ???, 2 pp., Lecture by Miss Paramita R. Abdurachman, 1972, Jakarta, Indonesia.

– Andaya, Leonard Y., “Local Trade Networks in Maluku in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Century” ?, in: “Cakalele” Volume 2/2, pp. 71-96, Maluku Research Journal, 1991, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

– Andaya, Leonard Y., “The world of Maluku: Eastern Indonesia in the early modern period”, University of Hawaii Press, 1993, Honolulu.

– Avillez, Maria João de, “A redescoberta das Flores”, in: “Semanal Expresso, Revista”, 5-05-2001.

– Argensola, Bartolomé Leonardo, “Conquista de las islas Malucas”, 372 pp., Ediciones Polifemo, 1992 (1609), Madrid, Spain.

– Banas Llanos, Maria B., “Las islas de las especias. Fuentes etnohistóricas sobre las Molucas XIV-XX”, 160 pp., Universidad de Extremadura, 2000, Caceres, Spain.

– Becking, C. L. “Hollandsche en Portugeesche vestigingen op het eiland Ternate”, in: “Indie GT” 8 (1924-1925) 15, pp. 235-241.

– Borges, Maria do Carmo Mira, “Os portugueses e o sultanato de Macassar no século XVII” ???, 269 pp., Tese Mestrado História dos Descobrimentos e da Expansão Portuguesa, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1996, Lisbon.

– Boxer,Ch.R. “Francisco Vieira de Figueiredo: a Portuguese merchant-adventurer in South East Asia, 1624-1667”, 118 pp., Martinus Nijhoff 1967, ‘s-Gravenhage, The Netherlands. The adventurous history of the life of Francisco Vieira de Figueiredo in Makassar and Larantuka.

– Boxer, Ch. R., “The topasses of Timor”, 22 pp., Uitgave van het Indisch Instituut, Druk de Bussy 1947, Amsterdam.

– Boxer , Ch. R., “A note on Portuguese reaction to the revival of the Red Sea Spice Trade and the rise of Atjeh, 1540-1600”, in: “An Expanding World”, Vol. n° 11.

– Pearson, M. N., “Spice in the Indian Ocean world”, Ashgate, Variorum, vol. n° 11, 1996, pp. 269-282, in: “Journal of Southeast Asian History”, Vol. 10, 1969, Singapore. pp. 415-428.

– Castro, A. de, “As possessões portuguezas na Oceânia”, 460 pp., Imprensa Nacional 1867, Lisbon. An old work; it is now outdated , but there is some interesting information.

– Chrystello, Chrys, “East Timor – The Secret Files 1973-1975”

– Chrystello, Chrys, “East Timor – The Secret Files 1973-1975”

– Das Gupta, Arun, “The maritime trade of Indonesia 1500-1800”, in: “An Expanding World”, Vol. n° 10.

– Prakash, Om, “European commercial expansion in early modern Asia”, pp.81-116. Also in: “India and the Indian Ocean 1500-1800”, Calcutta, 1987, pp. 240-275.

– Davidson, Katharine Georgina, “The Portuguese colonisation of Timor: the final stage 1850-1912” ?, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of New South Wales, 1995.

– Des Alwi & Hanna, A. Willard, “Turbolent times past in Ternate and Tidore” (also for the Dutch history), 290 pp., Rumah Budaya 1990, Banda Neira, Moluccas, Indonesia. One of the few books that deals with early Moluccan history. The Islands, the produce, the people, the first Westerners; visit of the Magellan Expedition, Pigafetta’s narration; the captain, the castle, the monopoly of the de Brito tenure; the Garcias-Menezes imbroglio, the Spanish menace; tortured preliminaries to the reign of Sultan Hairun; the freakish regime of good governor Galvão; the peregrinatios and perils of Hairun; pinnacle and nadir of Hairun’s fortunes; the triumphs of Sultan Baab, the expulsion of the Portuguese; Francis Drake’s curious visit, Baab’s mysterious death; Moluccan peccadillos, Iberian fiascos; Ternatean-Tidorean-Iberian-English-Dutch confrontations; the Spanish conquest, exile of the House of Said; ascendancy of the Dutch, eclipse of the Spaniards; the deplorable Reigns of Sultan Modafar and Sultan Hamzah; the despicable Sultan Mandarsjah, the abominable Admiral de Vlaming; the capers of Sultan Sibori: later rulers of Ternate and Tidore; protracted VOC senescence, the paradox of vast profits; M. Pierre Poivre and the purloined spice trees; troubles of the early 1790s, the gambits of Prince Nuku; the first English occupation, the levitation of spices; the second English occupation, the fate of reforms; nineteenth century personalities; glimpses of the northern Moluccas in the twentieth century.

– Duarte,Teófilo, “Ocupação e colonização branca de Timor” ?, 151 pp., plates, map. (Colecção Forum, Secção 13, no. 2), Editora Educação Nacional, 1944, Pôrto, Portugal.

– Encarnação, António da, “Breve relaçam das covsas, que nestes annos proximos, fizerão os religiosos da Ordem dos Pregadores, e dos prodígios , que succederaõ nas Christandades do sul, que correm por sua conta na Índia Oriental” ?, ii+68 pp., Officina de Henrique Valente de Oliveira, 1665, Lisbon, Portugal. Important and detailed account of the mission mainly on the islands of Timor, Solor and Flores, 1638 to 1662.

– Felgas, Hélio A. Esteves, “Timor português” ?, 570 pp., plates, maps. (Monografias dos territórios do Ultramar), Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de Publicações e Biblioteca, 1956, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Frade, Florbela Cristina Veiga, “A presença portuguesa nas Ilhas de Maluco: 1511-1605” ???, 351 pp., Tese Mestrado História dos Descobrimentos e Expansão Portuguesa, Universidade de Lisboa, 1999, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Hanna, Willard A., “Indonesian Banda: Colonialism and its aftermath in the nutmeg islands”, 164 pp., Illustrations, Map, ISHI, 1978, Philadelphia, USA.

– Jacobs, Hubert, “A treatise on the Moluccas” ca. 1544, x, 402 pp., Sources and studies for the history of the Jesuits n° 3, Institutum Historicum S. I., 1971, Roma, Italy . Probably the preliminary version of António Galvão’s lost História das Molucas”.

– Jacobs, Hubert, “The first locally demonstrable Christianity in Celebes 1544”, in: STUDIA N° 17, pp. 251 – 305, 1966, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Jacobs, Hubert, “The Portuguese town of Ambon, 1567-1605”, in: Various Authors, “II Seminário Internacional de História Indo–Portuguesa”, pp. 601-614, IICT & CEHCA 1985, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Jacobs, Hubert “Documenta Malucensia”, Vol. I 1542-1577. XLII-84*-760 pp. (vol. 109), Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu, 1974, Rome, Italy.

– Jacobs, Hubert “Documenta Malucensia”, Vol. II 1577-1605. XXXII-65*-794 pp. (vol. 119), Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu, 1980, Rome, Italy.

– Jacobs, Hubert “Documenta Malucensia”, Vol. III 1606-1682. XXIV-54*-778 pp. (vol. 126), Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu, 1984, Rome, Italy.

– Jacobs, Hubert, “Jesuits Makasar Documents, 1612-1682”, XXIII-36* – 284 pp. (vol. 134), Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu, 1988, Rome, Italy.

– Kartodirdjo, Sartorio, “Religious and economic aspects of Portuguese-Indonesian relations”, in: STUDIA N° 29, pp. 175-196, 1970, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Lape, V. Peter, “Contact and colonialism in the Banda islands, Maluku, Indonesia”, Department of Anthropology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

– Leitão, Humberto, “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702”, 302 pp., Tipografia Liga dos Combatentes da Grande Guerra, 1948, Lisbon, Portugal. An old work, but one of the few about this subject; interesting.

– Leitão, Humberto, “Vinte e oito anos de história de Timor, 1698 a 1725”, ?, xv, 352 pp., Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1952, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Loureiro, R. M. “Onde nasce o sándalo. Os Portugueses em Timor nos séculos XVI e XVII”, 223 pp., G.T.M.E.C.D.P., 1995, Lisbon, Portugal. History of the Portuguese in Timor, the Catholic missions, Timorese culture.

– Martinho, José Simões, “Timor, quatro séculos de colonização portuguesa” ?, 306 pp., map, Livraria Progreditor, 1943, Porto, Portugal.

– Martins, Maria Odete Soares, “A missionação nas Molucas no século XVI” ???, 328 pp., Tese Mestrado, História dos Descobrimentos e da Expansão Portuguesa, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1994, Lisbon, Portugal. [Texto policopiado] Contributo para o estudo da acção dos Jesuítas no Oriente.

– Matos, A. T. de, “Timor Português 1515-1796: contribuição para a sua história”, 489 pp., map, Instituto Histórico Infante Dom Henrique, 1974, Lisbon, Portugal. The main book on early Timor history.

– Matos, Artur Teodoro de, “Timor and the Portuguese trade in the Orient during the 18th century” ?, in: “As Relações entre a Índia Portuguesa, a Asia do Sueste e o Extremo Oriente: actas do VI Seminário Internacional de História Indo-Portuguesa”, pp. 437-445, 1993, Macau & Lisbon.

– Mc Clymont, James Roxburgh, “The first expedition of the Portuguese to Banda” ?, 1905, Hobart, Australia.

– Meilink-Roelofsz, M.A.P., “Asian Trade & European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 & about 1630”, 471 pp., Martinus Nijhoff, 1962, The Hague, The Netherlands. Index: I- Trade and traffic in the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula prior to the 15th century; II- The rise of Malacca; III- Malacca at the end of the 15th century. Structure of trade. Trade and traders in Malaccan society; IV- The commercial traffic of Malacca at the end of the 15th century: its bearing and density; V- Trade in the Indonesian Archipelago not centered exclusively on Malacca: the Sumatran ports, the spices producing areas: the Moluccas and Banda, trade in Borneo, Celebes and Lesser Sunda Islands, the Javanese seaports; VI- The influence of the Portuguese expansion on Asian trade; VII- Portuguese Malacca and native trade in the Malay-Indonesian area; VIII- The coming of the Northern Europeans to the Malay-Indonesian area, Inter-European conflicts and Asian trade; IX- The spice monopoly of the United Company and Asian trade in the Malay-Indonesian area; X- The United Company monopoly and the foreign Asian merchants in Indonesia at the beginning of the 17th century; XI- The United Company monopoly and the spice trade of the towns of Northern Java; Summary; Sources; Bibliography.

– Michel, Reverend F. Thomas S.J., “East Timor: the case for integration”, Internet article.

– Mitchell, Catherine & Léglise-Costa, Pierre, “Les Portugais en Indonésie”, in: Critique, N° XLIV, pp. 658-663, Editions de Minuit/Centre National des Lettres, 1988, Paris, France

– Nicholl, Robert “European Sources for the History of the Sultanate of Brunei in the Sixteenth Century” ?, Star Press, 1975, Brunei.

– Pélissier, René, “Portugais et espagnols en Océanie. Deux empires: confins et contrastes”, 154 pp., Editions Pélissier, Orgeval, France.

– Pélissier, René, “Timor en guerre. Le crocodile et les Portugais (1847-1913)”, 368 pp., Editions Pélissier, Orgeval, France.

– Perez, Lorenzo OFM “Historia de las misiones de los Franciscanos en las islas Malucas y Celebes”, in: “Archivum Franciscanum Historicorum” vol. VI (1913), pp. 45-60, 681-701; vol. VII (1914), pp. 198-226, 424-446, 621-653.

– Pinto da França, António, “A influência portuguesa na Indonésia”, in: STUDIA N° 33, pp. 161-234, 1971, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Ramerini, Marco, “Le Fortezze Spagnole nell’Isola di Tidore 1521-1663” Index: 1 INTRODUZIONE. 2 I PRIMI CONTATTI DEGLI SPAGNOLI CON L’ISOLA DI TIDORE E IL PRIMO FORTE SPAGNOLO. 3 GLI AVVENIMENTI SUCCESSIVI. 4 I FORTI SPAGNOLI DELL’ISOLA DI TIDORE, 1606-1663. 5 DIFESE DELLA CITTA’ DEL RE. 5.1 Lugar Grande De El Rey (Soa Siu) 5.2 Fuerte de los Portugueses (Fortaleza de los Reyes Magos). 5.3 Tohula, Santiago de los Caballeros. 5.4 Sokanora. 6 COSTA OCCIDENTALE E COSTA NORD DELL’ISOLA. 6.1 Marieco. 6.2 Marieco el Chico. 6.3 Tomanira. 6.4 Chobo. 6.5 Rume. APPENDICE: a Puli Caballo. b CAPITANI DI TIDORE (Fortezza di Santiago de los Caballeros).

– Rebelo, Gabriel, “Informação das cousas de Maluco ……. 1569”, 1856 & 1955, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Rego, António da Silva, “As Molucas em princípios do século XVI” ?, in: “A viagem de Fernão de Magalhães e a questão das Molucas”, pp. 78-89, 1975, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sá, Artur Basílio de, “Documentação para a história das missões do Padroado Português do Oriente: Insulíndia” Vol. I (1506-1549) ?, xxxix+ 654 pp. Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de publicações e biblioteca, 1954, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sá, Artur Basílio de, “Documentação para a história das missões do Padroado Português do Oriente: Insulíndia” Vol. II (1550-1562), xxxii+ 657 pp., Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de publicações e biblioteca, 1955, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sá, Artur Basílio de, “Documentação para a história das missões do Padroado Português do Oriente: Insulíndia” Vol. III (1563-1567) ?, xxxix+ 554 pp., Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de publicações e biblioteca, 1955, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sá, Artur Basílio de, “Documentação para a história das missões do Padroado Português do Oriente: Insulíndia” Vol. IV (1568-1579), xxxix+ 553 pp., Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de publicações e biblioteca, 1956, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sá, Artur Basílio de, “Documentação para a história das missões do Padroado Português do Oriente: Insulíndia” Vol. V. (1580-1595), xxxv+ 566 pp., Agência Geral do Ultramar, Divisão de publicações e biblioteca, 1958, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sá, Artur Basílio de, “Documentação para a história das missões do Padroado Português do Oriente: Insulíndia” Vol. VI (1595-1599) xxi+432 pp., IICT Centro de Estudos de História e Cartografia Antiga, 1988, Lisbon.

– Santos Alves, Jorge Manuel dos, “A hegemonia no norte de Samatra: Achém, Pacém e os Portugueses 1509-1579” ???, Fundação Oriente, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Schouten, M. J., “Encontros e desencontros na zona leste do arquipélago malaio”, in: “Oceanos” n°32, October/December 1997, pp. 121-130.

– Smith, F. A., “Pre-17th century states in Borneo: Tanjungpura is still a mystery, Lawei less so”, in: “Proceedings of the sixth biennial Borneo research conference”, pp. 149-178, July 10-14, 2000, Kuching, Sarawak.

– Teixeira, Pe. Manuel, “Early Portuguese & Spanish Contacts with Borneo”, in: “Separata do Boletim da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa” (SGL), Julho-Dezembro de 1964, Lisbon, Portugal. pp. 299-335.

– Thomaz, Luís Filipe Reis, “Les Portugais dans les Mers de l´Archipel au XVIème Siècle” ???, in: “Archipel”, n. 18, Études Interdisciplinaires sur le Monde Insulindien, 1979, Paris, France. (English translation in: Trade and Shipping in the Southern Seas, Cisarea, Indonesia: S.P.A.P.A., 1985).

– Trigo de Sousa, Esther, “Capitães Portuguesas nas Ilhas Molucas”, 283 pp., separata de STUDIA N° 43-44, 1980, Lisbon, Portugal. A description of the governments of the Portuguese captains in the Moluccas.

– van der Wall, V. I. “De Nederlandsche oudheden in de Molukken”, xx, 313 pp. with 3 folding maps and 155 illustrations on 93 plates. 1928, ‘s-Gravenhage, The Netherlands, pp. 227-275. Description of the 16th and 17th century Dutch, Portuguese and Spanish fortresses, graves, inscriptions and other monuments on the Moluccas. The monuments are described in their historical context, with emphasis on the history of the VOC.

– Villiers, J., “As derradeiras do mundo: The Dominican Mission and the Sandalwood trade in the Lesser Sunda Islands in the sixteenth and seventeenth century”, in: Various Authors, “II Seminário Internacional de História Indo–Portuguesa”, pp. 572-600, IICT & CEHCA, 1985, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Visser, B.J.J., “Onder Portugeesch-Spaansche vlag. De katholieke missie van Indonesië 1511-1605”, ?, 340 pp., 192-, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

– Wessels, C., “Histoire de la mission d’Amboine 1546-1605”, 238 pp., 2 maps, Museum Lessianum, 1934, Louvain, Belgium.

– Wessels, C., “De Augustijnen in de Molukken, 1544-1546; 1606-1625”, in: “Historisch Tijdschrift”, n°13, pp. 44-59, Bergmans & Cie, 1934, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

– Wessels, C. “De Katholieke Missie in het Sultanaat Batjan (Molukken) 1557-1609” ?, in: “Historisch Tijdschrift”, year 8, 427 pp., 1929, Tilburg, The Netherlands. First attempt of a description of Portuguese & Spanish Roman-Catholic missionary progress in the Sultanate of Batjan (Moluccas).

– Wessels, C. “De Katholieke Missie in de Molukken, Noord-Celebes en de Sangihe-Eilanden gedurende de spaansche bestuursperiode 1606-1677”, 141 pp., 1935, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

About Marco Ramerini

I am passionate about history, especially the history of geographical explorations and colonialism.