Author Archives: Marco Ramerini

Trincomalee: The consolidation of the Dutch presence

Map of Fort Oostenburg (1789-1790), Trinconomalee, Sri Lanka. Author Schenk

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The French attempt 7.0 THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE DUTCH PRESENCE This period of instability resulted in a remarkable decrease of the volume of commerce, dealt with Trincomalee. The figures of this decline are inconsistent, but it seems that in the first ten years of Dutch occupation the commerce ...

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Trincomalee: The French attempt

Map of Trincomalee (1775), Sri Lanka. Mannevillette, D'Apres de, Le Neptune Oriental, 1775

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The new Dutch occupation and the reconstruction of the Fort 6.0 THE FRENCH ATTEMPT A new threat encumbered on the Dutch possessions of Ceylon, it materialized in March 1672 in the shape of a great French fleet, that of admiral de la Haye. In the years between 1665 ...

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Trincomalee: The new Dutch occupation and the reconstruction of the Fort

Plan of Fort Trincomalee, made by the Chevalier de Suffren in August 1782

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The Dutch conquest and the abandonment of the Fort 5.0 THE NEW DUTCH OCCUPATION AND THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE FORT During the subsequent years it is likely that the Dutch maintained only a small fortified outpost in Kottiyar Bay 1, but also this is not sure. Sure is ...

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Trincomalee: The Dutch conquest and the abandonment of the Fort

Fort Fredrick, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Author Bel Adone. No Copyright.

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The arrival of the Danes, the Dutch and the construction of the Portuguese Fort 4.0 THE DUTCH CONQUEST AND THE ABANDONMENT OF THE FORT The first attack of the Dutch on the Portuguese forts of Ceylon was directed towards the eastern coast of the island, where the Portuguese ...

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Trincomalee: The arrival of the Danes, the Dutch and the construction of the Portuguese Fort

Map of Trincomalee by Antonio Bocarro (1635). Livro das Plantas de todas as fortalezas, cidades e povoaçoens do Estado da Índia Oriental (1635)

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: The first contacts with the Portuguese 3.0 THE ARRIVAL OF THE DANES, THE DUTCH AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PORTUGUESE FORT The strategic importance of the control over the bays and the ports on the eastern coast of Ceylon discovered, it was clear with the arrival of the ...

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Trincomalee: The first contacts with the Portuguese

Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Map (1681). Robert Knox. An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon.

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. Continued from: Introduction 2.0 THE FIRST CONTACTS WITH THE PORTUGUESE A first interest of the Portuguese with regard to Trincomalee has been in the first years of the 1540s. All had begun, when the king of Kandy, Jayavira, on the advice of Nuno Alvarez Pereira 1, asked the Portuguese governor ...

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The History of Trincomalee during Portuguese and Dutch rule: Introduction

Map of Trincomalee (1775), Sri Lanka. Mannevillette, D'Apres de, Le Neptune Oriental, 1775

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. 1.0 INTRODUCTION The bay, called by the Portuguese ‘Baía dos Arcos’, where is situated the city of Trincomalee 1 on the island of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) has always been considered as one of the best ports of the world. Its highly strategic position in the centre of the Indian Ocean ...

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The Dutch Fort of Galle in Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

Dutch Fort, Galle, Sri Lanka. Author and Copyright Dietrich Köster

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by Dietrich Köster. The city of Galle is located along the southwestern coast of Sri Lanka, about 120 km south of Colombo. Here first the Portuguese, and then the Dutch had built a fort to control the bay. The Portuguese sacked Galle in 1587 and then in 1597 built a small fort on a hillock. In ...

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The Portuguese forts of Quelba and Corfacão (Khor Fakkan)

Portuguese forts of Quelba and Corfacão from Prof. Rui Carita Lyvro de Plantaforma das Fortalezas da Índia

The city of Khor Fakkan (Corfação) is located along the east coast of the United Arab Emirates (25°20’N – 56°22’E). Here, the Portuguese, around 1620, built a triangular fortress with triangular bastions and a round tower in the center. In the log book of the Dutch vessel the Meerkat (1666) we read: “Gorfacan is a place on a small bay, which has about ...

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The Portuguese fort of Matrah (Matara)

Portuguese fort of Matarâ (Matrah) from Prof. Rui Carita Lyvro de Plantaforma das Fortalezas da Índia

Situated in a natural harbour near the Oman capital Muscat, tha city of Matrah (Matara). The Portuguese built a fort in Matrah in 1588, the fort was part of the defenses of the city of Muscat. The Portuguese controlled the fort between 1588 and 1648. The fort at Matrah was a square fort with four bastions at the corners. For the image ...

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