Portuguese Colonialism

The Portuguese fort in São Tomé

Fort São Sebastião, São Tomé. Author and Copyright João Sarmento.

Photos by João Sarmento. Written by Marco Ramerini. The Portuguese Fort São Sebastião, São Tomé, São Tomé e Príncipe. The fort was built in 1575. The fort was occupied by the Dutch on 16 Oct. 1641. The Portuguese recaptured the fort on 15 December 1644. The Fort São Sebastião is square-shaped with bastions at each corner and now houses the São Tomé and Príncipe National Museum.

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The Portuguese forts in Morocco

Azemmour, Morocco. Author and Copyright João Sarmento

Photos by João Sarmento. Written by Marco Ramerini. Some pictures of what remains of forts built by the Portuguese in Morocco in the 15th and 16th century. Here are presented photos of Azamor (Azemmour), Safim (Safi) and Mazagão (El Jadida) taken by João Sarmento. The fort of Azamor (Azemmour) was under Portuguese control between 3 September 1513 and October 1541. The fort of Safim (Safi) called by ...

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The Role of the Portuguese Language in Lusophone Asia

Map of Asia (1627). Authors Bertius; Danckerts; Tavernier. No Copyright

Written by Dietrich Köster Portuguese India/Estado da Índia Portuguesa – Goa, Daman/Damão and Diu Until the invasion of Nehru’s troops in December 1961 Portuguese was the official language, while after the annexation English received this status. The local languages Konkani in Goa and Gujarati in Damão and Diu only play a minor role in public life. Even during the Portuguese ...

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The Forts of the Spice Islands of Indonesia, Today

Fort Kayu Merah, Ternate, Indonesia. Author and Copyright Simon Pratt

Written by Simon Pratt Forts of the Banda Islands The Banda Islands, reached via Ambon, contain some of the most historic and evocative forts of the old Dutch East Indies. Most impressive is Dutch-built Fort Belgica (constructed 1611) towering over the tiny township of Bandaneira. Following refurbishment in the 1990’s it remains the best preserved of all forts scattered across ...

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Bahrain: Portuguese Fort of Qal’ at Arad

Fort Arad, Bahrain. Author and Copyright João Sarmento.

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by João Sarmento. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Portuguese Fort of Qal’ at Arad, Bahrain. The fort of Arad is located on the island of Muharraq – the northernmost island of the archipelago of Bahrain – the fort rises in front of the beach in a cove along the southern coast of the ...

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Bahrain: Portuguese Fort of Halat Bu Maher

Fort of Halat Bu Maher, Bahrain

Written by Marco Ramerini The fort of Halat Bu Maher (also know as Qal’at Abu Mahir) is located on Muharraq island – the northernmost island of the archipelago – and was strategically situated to control both the straits between Bahrain and Muharraq, and the bay between Muharraq Town and Arad Fort. In 1630s. the Portuguese maps (“Livro das Plantas de ...

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Bahrain: Portuguese Fort of Qala’at al-Bahrain (Bahrain Fort)

Qala'at al-Bahrain (Bahrain Fort), Bahrain

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos by João Sarmento. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. The Portuguese Fort of Qala’at al-Bahrain (Bahrain Fort), Bahrain. Remains of Qal’ At Al-Bahrain (16th century) or Portuguese Fort. The fort consists of three huge strongholds and the remnants of two towers in the middle and full walls linking the three strongholds together. It is surrounded ...

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Maramuca: an exercise in the combined use of Portuguese records and oral tradition: the History of the Mwanamutapa Empire

Zimbabwe map

Written by D. P. Abraham Section I. INTRODUCTION: THE HISTORY OF THE MWANAMUTAPA EMPIRE At the start of the fifteenth century A.D. a group of patrilineal Bantu clans, collectively known as the Vakaranga, occupied in strength the south and south-west of what is now Southern Rhodesia. The population was mainly composed of small-scale peasant cultivators and cattle-breeders, who lived in ...

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Seventeenth Century Portuguese Earthworks in Rhodesia: Maramuca (Hartley/Chegutu)

Standing on the ancient workings looking towards the feira site

Written by P. S. Garlake Historical Monuments Commission, Rhodesia INTRODUCTION Two sites, one in the Mtoko (Mutoko) district containing two separate rectangular earthworks and the other in the Hartley (Chegutu) district with a single very similar earthwork have recently been identified and excavated. The excavations were on a very small scale intended primarily to provide, as far as possible, a ...

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Maramuca: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe

Standing on the ancient workings looking towards the feira site

Written by Chris Dunbar. All pictures are copyright by Chris Dunbar. Maramuca, 2010: The trip to Maramuca was via the town of Chegutu and then another 30 odd kilometres on an old strip road to the gold mining town of Chakari. From Chakari we had to travel on a dirt road which later turned into a dirt track. The location ...

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Great Zimbabwe: a ruined city in the southeastern hills of Zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe. Author and Copyright Chris Dunbar

Written by Marco Ramerini. Photos copyright by Chris Dunbar. Great Zimbabwe was the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe where was the royal palace and the seat of the political power. The city was surrounded by massive walls that reach 5 meters in height which were constructed without mortar. The area where is Great Zimbabwe was occupied from the fourth century ...

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Portuguese Forts, Markets (Feira) and Settlements in Zimbabwe

Native sections of the walls that have survived. Luanze, Zimbabwe. Author and Copyright Chris Dunbar

Written by Chris Dunbar The following is a list of sites that were investigated by the Rhodesian / Zimbabwean Government, no suspected Portuguese sites have been restored (unfortunately) and no more have been added since the first cataloguing was done in the early 1970’s. A number of the historical trading centres and forts have still not been located and further ...

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