Fort Aguada, Goa, India. Author Abhijit Nandi. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike
Fort Aguada, Goa, India. Author Abhijit Nandi

India. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions

Written by Marco Ramerini. English text revision by Dietrich Köster.

INDIA:

Diu: (20°43’N – 71°00’E) Forte or Castelo do Mar, Castelo de Diu or Fortaleza de São Tomé

Portuguese: 21 Dec. 1535 fortress – 18/19 Dec. 1961

Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia”

Island of Diu: Fortaleza de Nagoa (1744), Fortaleza de Brancavara (1774), Forte de Simbor, Forte de Gogola.

Portuguese: 1554 – 18/19 Dec 1961

Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia”

Bulsar or Balsar (Valsad ?): (20°37’N – 72°55’E)

Portuguese: 1559 fort – 1560 abandoned

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Parnel (Parnera ?): (20°33’N – 72°57’E) three leagues from Daman

Portuguese: 1559* the fort is conquered and then razed to the ground

Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” * 1569 according to Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Damão Grande or Praça de Damão (Damão, Moti Daman or Daman): (20°25’N – 72°50’E) Castelo de Hieronymus

Portuguese: 1559 fort – 18/19 Dec.1961

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities” Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Damão Pequeno (Nani Daman): (20°26’N – 72°50’E) Forte de São Jerónimo (1614/15)

Portuguese: 1614/5 fort – 18/19 Dec 1961

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities “Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia”

Dadrá: (20°19’N – 72°58’E)

Portuguese: 1779 – 24 July 1954

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities”

Nagar Haveli: 

Portuguese: 1779 – 2 Aug. 1954

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities”

São Gens or Samges:

Portuguese: round fortress with 6 bastions

Umbargão (Umargam): (20°12’N – 72°45’E)

Portuguese: fort – Nov. 1738

to Marathas

Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Danu (Dahanu): (19°58’N – 72°44’E) round fort with a bulwark

Portuguese: 1533 ? 1560c. fort – November 1738

to Marathas

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Trapor or Tarapor (Tarapur): (19°53’N – 72°41’E) fort with round and square bastions

Portuguese: 15 ? – 1739

to the Marathas

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Kari de Chikli or Tchikla (Chinchani ?): (19°53’N – 72°41’E) ?

Portuguese: square fort with 4 bastions

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Serra de Açarim, Azarim or Aserim: 

Portuguese: 1556 tranqueira, mountains fort – 13 Feb. 1739

to the Marathas

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Manora’ or Manori: round fort

Portuguese: 1556 fort – ?

Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Sirgão or Seridão (Shirgaum): (19°44’N – 72°44’E)

Portuguese: ? – 1739

to the Marathas

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India”

Mahim: (19°39’N – 72°44’E) round fort

Portuguese: 1532 – 20 January 1739

to Marathas

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Kari de Mahim: small triangular fort with two bastions

Portuguese: ? – ?

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” 

Quelme (Kelve): (19°35’N – 72°45’E)

Portuguese: ? – 1739

to the Marathas

Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” Danvers “The Portuguese in India”Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Ilha das Vacas (Arnalla): (19°28’N – 72°44’E) circular tower

Portuguese: ? – 13 February 1739

to Marathas

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Asserim or Agaçaim (Agashi): (19°28’N – 72°47’E)

Portuguese: fort and custom house

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Sopera or Supara (Sopara): (19°25’N – 72°47’E)

Portuguese: four wooden stockades

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” 

Saibana:

Portuguese: stockade

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

Bassein or Baçaim (Vasai): Cidadela de São Sebastiao (19°20’N – 72°49’E)

Portuguese: 1528 sacked, 1532 conquered and abandoned, 23 December 1534 ceded by a treaty

Portuguese: May 1536 fortress – 16 May 1739 surrender, 23 May 1739 the Portuguese leave the town

Leao “A Província do Norte do Estado da Índia” Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Galiana (Kalyana): (19°14’N – 73°10’E)

Portuguese: 1535 – lost a short time after

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

Salsette Island:

Portuguese: 1534 – 1737

to Marathas

Gerson de Cunha “The origin of Bombay”

Thana (Salsette Island): (19°11’N – 72°58’E) two towers (São Pedro and São Jeronimo) and one small square fort (Reis Magos) with two bastions.

Portuguese: 1534 – 1737

to Marathas

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

Portuguese: There were three bulwarks near Thana: Forte Santa Cruz (Salcete is.), Forte do Passo Seco or do Rio (in front of Thana), Baluarte do Mar (in the direction of Bombay)

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

Bandora:

Portuguese: Torre Agoada (1640s.) small watch tower

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

Dharavi Island: (19°16’N – 72°50’E) ?

Portuguese: fort

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Versova Island:

Portuguese: fort

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

Bombaim or Mobaim (Bombay): (18°55’N – 72°50’E) quadrangular fort

Portuguese: 1534 ceded by treaty – 18 February 1665

to the British by treaty

Belaflor, Sambayo or Sabayo (Belapur): (19°01’N – 73°02’E)

Portuguese: fortification

Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Caranja or Juem: circa (18°54’N – 72°55’E) There were 2 forts, one, smaller, on the east side of the island, the other, bigger, on a hill, was a square fort, three angles, of which each had a bastion each.

Portuguese: – 28 March 1739

to Angria

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

Portuguese: From Bassein to Caranja there were 14 Portuguese forts or towers. Gerson de Cunha “Notes on the history of Chaul and Bassein”

In 1739 the Portuguese lost: 20 fortresses, 2 fortified hills, 8 towns. Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Chaul (Revdanda): (18°33’N – 72°56’E) Fortaleza de Santa Maria do Castelo

Portuguese: 1503 feitoria ?, 1509 vassal, 1516 feitoria, 1521 fort, October 1531 fortress – 18 September 1740

transfer by treaty to the Marhattas

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities” Danvers “Portuguese in India” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Morro de Chaul (Korlai): (18°32’N – 72°55’E) Fortaleza do Morro de Chaul

Portuguese: 1594 the fortress was conquered – 1739

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities” Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India”

Goa: At the beginning of 17th century the Portuguese ruled over a territory of about 275 square miles. Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire”

Portuguese: 4 March 1510 – 20 May 1510

Portuguese: 25 November 1510 – 18/19 Dec. 1961

to India

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities” Salcete or Salsete: 1543 – Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities”

Bardez (Goa): 

Portuguese: 1543 – ?

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities”

Reis Magos or Magus (Bardez, Goa):

Portuguese: 1550s. – ?

Aguada or Agoada (Bardez, Goa): Forte Santa Caterina (1604)

Portuguese: 1604 – ?

Alorna (Goa): fort

Portuguese: 5 May 1746 – ?

Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Nossa Senhora do Cabo (near Aguada fort, Goa): rectangular fort

Gaspar Dias, St. Ignes (Panjim, Goa): square fort (1598)

Portuguese: 1598 – ?

Mormugão (Goa): fort (1624)

Portuguese: 1624 – ?

Rachol (Salcete, Goa):

Portuguese: Fortress of Indian origin with Portuguese additions (1604)

Torre de Noroa (Goa):

See: “Os Portugueses no Malabar” p. 59 note 64

Neutim fort (Goa):

Portuguese: 1746 – ?

Rarim fort (Goa):

Portuguese: 1746 – ?

Cabo do Rama (Goa): 

Portuguese: Fort

Chapora (Goa): fort (1617)

Portuguese: 1617 – 1684

Portuguese: ? – 1739

Portuguese: ? – 1961

Tiracol (Tarekhol, Goa): fort (1746)

Portuguese: 1746 – 15 Aug. 1954 for a few hours is occupied by the Indians, a few hours after it is taken up by the Portuguese

Cintacola or Cintacora (Sadashivgad, Goa): (14°51’N – 74°07’E) Forte de Pito or Piro

Portuguese: 30 Jan. 1791 – 16 Mar. 1793

to Tipu Sultan

Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Angediva (Anjediv): (14°49’N – 74°03’E) Forte Nossa Senhora das Brotas (1682)

Portuguese: 14 Sep. 1505 fort – 1506/7 abandoned

Portuguese: 5 May 1682 fort – 20 Dec.1961

to India

Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Onor (Honawar): (14°17’N – 74°26’E) Fortaleza de Santa Catarina (1568/9)

Portuguese: 1568/9 fort – 1654

Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire” 

Gersoppa (30 miles upstream of Onor): (14°15’N – 74°39’E)

Portuguese: Casa do Peso

Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire”

Bhatkal: (13°59’N – 74°32’E)

Portuguese: 1514 the harbour is dismantling, 1542 conquered and after two days abandoned and burnt, 1548 tributary

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Barcelor or Braçalor (Basrur): (13°38’N – 74°44’E) square shaped fortress.

Portuguese: 1568/9 fort – 1652

to Ikerri

Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire”

Cambolin (Coondapoor, near Barcelor): (13°38’N – 74°41’E) square shaped fortress.

Portuguese: 1629 fort – 15 Jan 1653

to Ikerri

Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire” Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Mangalore (Mangalor): (12°54’N – 74°50’E) Forte São Sebastiao (1567/68/69) square shaped fortress with a bastion at every corner.

Portuguese: 1568/9* fort – 165?

Portuguese: feitoria (there was in 1750)

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire” * 1567 Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Mount Delly (Ettikulam): (12°05’N – 75°11’E)

Portuguese: fort ?

Naravane “The maritime and coastal forts of India” 

Cannanore or Cananor: (11°51’N – 75°22’E) Fortaleza de Santão Gil or Santo Angelo (1505)

Portuguese: 1501 ally of Portugal and feitoria, Oct. 1505 fort – 15* Feb. 1663 (*13 Feb. 1663 according to Danvers “The Portuguese in India”)

to The Netherlands

Correia “Os Portugueses no Malabar 1498-1580” Koshy “Dutch power in Kerala”

Calecut or Calicut (Kozikode): (11°15’N – 75°47’E)

Portuguese: 1514/15 fort – 1525* (*1522-1525 according to Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire”)

Portuguese: feitoria (there was one in 1750)

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” Correia “Os Portugueses no Malabar 1498-1580”

Chalé or Chale (Chalyam or Beypore): (11°09’N – 75°49’E) rectangulare shaped fort

Portuguese: 1531 fort – 1571

Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire” Correia “Os Portugueses no Malabar 1498-1580” 

Ponanni or Panane: (10°46’N – 75°55’E)

Portuguese: 1535 attempt to build a fort, never finished.

Disney “Twilight of the pepper empire”

Cranganore or Cranganor (Kodungallor): (10°13’N – 76°13’E) Castelo de São Tomé (1536) square-shaped fort

Portuguese: 1536 fort – 15 Jan. 1662

to The Netherlands

Correia “Os Portugueses no Malabar 1498-1580” Koshy “Dutch power in Kerala” Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Cochin de Cima (Pallipuram): (10°10’N – 76°11’E) Castelo de Cima (1502 ?)

Portuguese: 1502 ? fort – 16 Feb. 1661

to The Netherlands

Correia “Os Portugueses no Malabar 1498-1580” Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Cochin, Cochin de Baixo or Santa Cruz: (09°57’N – 76°15’E) Fortaleza Manuel (1503)

Portuguese: 1501 ally of Portugal, 26/27 Sep. 1503 timber fortress, 1505/6 stone fortress – 7/8 Jan. 1663

to The Netherlands

Correia “Os Portugueses no Malabar 1498-1580” Koshy “Dutch power in Kerala” Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Rossa “Indo-Portuguese cities” (27 Sep. 1503 timber fortress, 3 May 1506 stone fortress) 

Coulão or Coullam (Quilon): (08°53’N – 76°35’E) Forte São Tomé or Tangesseri (1518)

Portuguese: 1505 feitoria, 1518 fortress – 29 Dec. 1658

to The Netherlands (29 Dec. 1658 – 14 Apr. 1659)

Portuguese: 14 Apr. 1659 – 24 Dec. 1661

to The Netherlands

Correia “Os Portugueses no Malabar 1498-1580” Koshy “Dutch power in Kerala” Danvers “The Portuguese in India” 

Punicale (Punnaikayal): Punicale was the chief Portuguese settlement of the Fishery Coast between 1532 and the 1580s; from about the 1580s their chief settlement was Tuticorin.

Portuguese: settlement 1532c. fort – 1552

Portuguese: 1553 – ?

Caldwell “A history of Tinnevelly”

Tuticorin or Tutucorim: (08°48’N – 78°09’E) Punicale was the chief Portuguese settlement of the Fishery Coast between 1532 and 1580s; from about 1580s their chief settlement was Tuticorin.

Portuguese: settlement 1532c., Portuguese governor 1542c. – Feb. 1658

to The Netherlands

Danvers “The Portuguese in India” Caldwell “A history of Tinnevelly”

Nagapatão or Negapatão (Negapatam or Nagapattinam): (10°47’N – 79°50’E)

Portuguese: 1520/30s. settlement, 1642/43 fort and custom house – 23 July 1658

to The Netherlands

Subrahmanyam “The South Coromandel Portuguese in the late 17th…” in Studia n° 49 Danvers “The Portuguese in India”

Porto Novo (Parangi-Pettai): (11°29’N – 79°46’E)

Portuguese: 1590s. settlement – 18th. ?

Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580” Subrahmanyam “The South Coromandel Portuguese in the late 17th…” in Studia n° 49 Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700”

Tegenapatam: (11°44’N – 79°47’E)

Portuguese: fort ?

Raychaudhuri “Jan Company in Coromandel 1605-1690” p. 19

São Tomé de Meliapor: (13°00’N – 80°15’E)

Portuguese: 1522/3 settlement, 1614 fort – 1662

to Qutbshahi (Golconda) (1662 – 1672)

to the French (1672 – 6 September 1674)

to The Netherlands (6 September 1674 – 10 October 1674)

to the Qutbshahi (Golconda) (10 October 1674 – 1687)

Portuguese attempt to reestablish a Portuguese settlement: 1687 – 21 Oct. 1749

to the British (21 October 1749 – ?)

Lotika Varadarajan “San Thomé: early European activities and aspirations” Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580” Subrahmanyam “The South Coromandel Portuguese in the late 17th…” in Studia n° 49 Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700” 

Paliacate or Paleacate (Pulicat): (13°24’N – 80°19’E)

Portuguese: 1518 settlement – 1600s.

Dutch factory: (Apr. 1610 – 12 Jun. 1612)

Portuguese: 12 Jun 1612 conquered and destroyed by the Portuguese and abandoned

Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700” Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580” Subrahmanyam “The South Coromandel Portuguese in the late 17th…” in Studia n° 49

Masulipatam or Masulipatão: (16°11’N – 81°08’E)

Portuguese: settlement

Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580”

Portuguese: A Portuguese captain was appointed in Masulipatam between 1598 and 1605/1610 according to Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700”

Balasore or Balasor: (21°29’N – 86°57’E)

Portuguese: settlement

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal”

Pipli: circa (21°37’N – 87°20’E)

Portuguese: 1514 settlement – ?

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal”

Bandel: (22°56’N – 88°24’E)

Portuguese: 1599 friary – ?

Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580” 

Porto Pequeno de Bengala, Sategão, Satigão, Sateguam or Satigam (Satgaon): (22°57’N – 88°24’E)

Portuguese: 1536/7 customs house, feitoria – ?

Portuguese: 1590s. – ?

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580”

Ugolim, Golim or Dogolim (Hugli or Hooghly): (22°54’N – 88°24’E)

Portuguese: 1579/80 – 25 September 1632

to the Mughals

Portuguese: July 1633 new Portuguese settlement – 18th century ?

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580”

Tambolim (Tamluk or Tumlook): (22°18’N – 87°55’E)

Portuguese: settlement

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal”

Angelim (Hidgelee or Hijili): circa (22°14’N – 88°03’E)

Portuguese: 1520s settlement – 1636

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” 

MALDIVES:

Ilhas de Maldiva, Male: (04°10’N – 73°30’E)

Portuguese: 1517/18 feitoria, 1519 wooden fort – 1519 (1521 ?)

Portuguese: 1558 fort – 1573

Bell, H.C.P. “Excerpta Maldiviana” from the Ceylon Royal Archaeological Society Journal, 1931 VOL. XXXII 

BANGLADESH:

Sundiva (Sandwip island): circa (22°30’N – 91°28’E)

Portuguese: 1590s. tributary of Portugal, 1602 conquered by Portugal – 1605?

Portuguese: 1607 – 1616

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” Guedes “Interferencia e integração dos Portugueses na Birmania 1580-1630”

Porto Grande de Bengala or Chatigam (Chittagong): (22°20’N – 91°50’E)

Portuguese: 1536/7 customs house and feitoria

Portuguese: In 1590 the fort is conquered by the Portuguese – in the 1590s the Portuguese are expelled.

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal”

Dianga: circa (22°15’N – 91°50’E)

Portuguese: ? settlement – 1607

Portuguese: after 1615 new Portuguese settlement

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal”

Dacca: (23°42’N – 90°24’E)

Portuguese: 1580 settlement – ?

Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” 

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